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It is known that acetylcholine can stimulate activation and promote plasticity in the cerebral cortex, yet it is not known how the cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, which release acetylcholine in the cortex, discharge in relation to natural cortical activity and sleep-wake states. By recording basal forebrain units in association with(More)
The basal forebrain has been shown to play an important role in cortical activation of wake and paradoxical sleep (PS), yet has also been posited to play a role in slow wave sleep (SWS). In an effort to determine whether these different roles may be fulfilled by different cell groups, including cholinergic and GABAergic cells, we recorded from 123 units in(More)
Persistent neuronal activity lasting seconds to minutes has been proposed to allow for the transient storage of memory traces in entorhinal cortex and thus could play a major role in working memory. Nonsynaptic plateau potentials induced by acetylcholine account for persistent firing in many cortical and subcortical structures. The expression of these(More)
Neuronal activity and neurotrophins play a central role in the formation, maintenance, and plasticity of dendritic arbors. Here, we show that neuronal activity, mediated by electrical stimulation, KCl depolarization, or cholinergic receptor activation, promotes reversible dendrite formation in sympathetic neurons and that this effect is enhanced by NGF.(More)
Cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is an enzyme involved in the formation of proinflammatory mediators by catalyzing the release of arachidonic acid, thereby mediating eicosanoid biosynthesis. Using HaCaT keratinocytes as a model system, we present experimental evidence that in these cells, cPLA(2) is constitutively phosphorylated and that the degree of(More)
The M-current (current through Kv7 channels) is a low-threshold noninactivating potassium current that is suppressed by muscarinic agonists. Recent studies have shown its role in spike burst generation and intrinsic subthreshold theta resonance, both of which are important for memory function. However, little is known about its role in principal cells of(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Our aim was to evaluate the growth-promoting effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment in infants with chronic renal failure (CRF) and persistent growth retardation despite adequate nutritional and metabolic management. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS The study design included randomized, parallel groups in an open,(More)
The effect of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E5 protein on apoptosis was investigated by using the polyclonal HaCaT-cell lines stably transfected either with E5 (HaCaT/E5) or the empty vector (HaCaT/pMSG) as reference. Apoptosis was triggered either by Fas ligand (FasL) or by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and was(More)
We performed a phylogenetic study of the E2-L2 region of human mucosal papillomaviruses (PVs) and of the proteins therein encoded. Hitherto, proteins codified in this region were known as E5 proteins. We show that many of these proteins could be spurious translations, according to phylogenetic and chemical coherence criteria between similar protein(More)
Papillomaviruses (PVs) infect stratified squamous epithelia in vertebrates. Some PVs are associated with different types of cancer and with certain benign lesions. It has been assumed that PVs coevolved with their hosts. However, recently it has been shown that different regions of the genome have different evolutionary histories. The PV genome has a(More)