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One-third of the approximately 400 nonodorant G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are still orphans. Although a considerable number of these receptors are likely to transduce cellular signals in response to ligands that remain to be identified, they may also have ligand-independent functions. Several members of the GPCR family have been shown to modulate(More)
Leukocytes from individuals with warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome, a rare immunodeficiency, and bearing a wild-type CXCR4 ORF (WHIM(WT)) display impaired CXCR4 internalization and desensitization upon exposure to CXCL12. The resulting enhanced CXCR4-dependent responses, including chemotaxis, probably impair(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Low levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) are suspected to be associated with a risk of hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke. We assessed the risk of hemorrhagic transformation after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in mice with low levels of LDL-C resulting from proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9(More)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are well-known drug targets. However, a question mark remains for the more than 100 orphan GPCRs as current deorphanisation strategies failed to identify specific ligands for these receptors. Recent advances have shown that orphan GPCRs may have important functions that are ligand-independent. Orphan GPCRs can modulate(More)
The CXCL12gamma chemokine arises by alternative splicing from Cxcl12, an essential gene during development. This protein binds CXCR4 and displays an exceptional degree of conservation (99%) in mammals. CXCL12gamma is formed by a protein core shared by all CXCL12 isoforms, extended by a highly cationic carboxy-terminal (C-ter) domain that encompass four(More)
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc metallopeptidase that plays a major role in blood homoeostasis and reproduction in mammals. In vertebrates, both transmembrane and soluble ACE, containing one or two homologous active sites, have been characterized. So far, several ACEs from invertebrates have been cloned, but only in insects. They are soluble(More)
Although G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization has long been considered as a major aspect of the desensitization process that tunes ligand responsiveness, internalization is also involved in receptor resensitization and signaling, as well as the ligand scavenging function of some atypical receptors. Internalization thus contributes to the(More)
The CXCL12c chemokine arises by alternative splicing from Cxcl12, an essential gene during development. This protein binds CXCR4 and displays an exceptional degree of conservation (99%) in mammals. CXCL12c is formed by a protein core shared by all CXCL12 isoforms, extended by a highly cationic carboxy-terminal (C-ter) domain that encompass four overlapped(More)
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