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Borna disease virus (BDV) is a nonsegmented, negative-strand RNA virus related to rhabdoviruses and paramyxoviruses. Unlike animal viruses of these two families, BDV transcribes RNAs in the nuclei of infected cells and produces high levels of transcripts containing multiple open reading frames. Previous Northern blot analysis of RNA from BDV-infected rat(More)
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model system for studying innate immunity, including antiviral host defense. Infection with drosophila C virus triggers a transcriptional response that is dependent in part on the Jak kinase Hopscotch. Here we show that successful infection and killing of drosophila with the insect nodavirus flock house virus was(More)
Flock house virus (FHV) is a small icosahedral insect virus of the family Nodaviridae. Its genome consists of two positive-sense RNA molecules, RNA1 (replicase gene) and RNA2 (coat protein gene), which are encapsidated into a single virion. Expression of coat protein in Sf21 cells using a baculovirus vector results in formation of virus-like particles(More)
The assembly and maturation of the coat protein of a T=4, nonenveloped, single-stranded RNA virus, Nudaurelia capensis omega virus (N omega V), was examined by using a recombinant baculovirus expression system. At pH 7.6, the coat protein assembles into a stable particle called the procapsid, which is 450 A in diameter and porous. Lowering the pH to 5.0(More)
Borna disease virus is a neurotropic negative-strand RNA virus that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing disturbances in movement and behavior. We have cloned and sequenced the 8910-nucleotide viral genome by using RNA from Borna disease virus particles. The viral genome has complementary 3' and 5' termini and contains antisense information for(More)
As a counter-defense against antiviral RNA silencing during infection, the insect Flock House virus (FHV) expresses the silencing suppressor protein B2. Biochemical experiments show that B2 binds to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) without regard to length and inhibits cleavage of dsRNA by Dicer in vitro. A cocrystal structure reveals that a B2 dimer forms a(More)
Mass spectrometry and fluorescent probes have provided direct evidence that alkylating agents permeate the protein capsid of naked viruses and chemically inactivate the nucleic acid. N-acetyl-aziridine and a fluorescent alkylating agent, dansyl sulfonate aziridine, inactivated three different viruses, flock house virus, human rhinovirus-14, and foot and(More)
The capsid of flock house virus is composed of 180 copies of a single type of coat protein which forms a T=3 icosahedral shell. High-resolution structural analysis has shown that the protein subunits, although chemically identical, form different contacts across the twofold axes of the virus particle. Subunits that are related by icosahedral twofold(More)
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a T=1 nonenveloped icosahedral virus that has had severe impact on the swine industry. Here we report the crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated PCV2 virus-like particle at 2.3-Å resolution, and the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) image reconstruction of a full-length PCV2 virus-like particle at 9.6-Å resolution.(More)