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The temporal development of autoantibodies was studied in 1,353 offspring of parents with type 1 diabetes. Islet cell antibodies (ICAs) and autoantibodies to insulin (IAAs), glutamic acid decarboxylase, and IA-2 were measured at birth, 9 months, 2 years, and 5 years of age. At birth, no offspring had islet autoimmunity other than maternally acquired(More)
CONTEXT Dietary factors modifying type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) risk have been proposed, but little is known if they trigger the islet autoimmunity that precedes clinical disease. OBJECTIVE To determine whether breastfeeding duration, food supplementation, or age at introduction of gluten-containing foods influences the risk of developing islet(More)
IDDM results from immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells in individuals genetically susceptible for the disease. There is evidence that the 65-kDa isoform of GAD plays a critical role in the induction of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. In humans, it is still unclear when and to what beta-cell antigens autoreactive(More)
In IDDM, T-cells are postulated to mediate the destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) responses to human insulin, glutamate decarboxylase GAD65, tyrosine phosphatase ICA512, glucagon, membrane preparations of RIN cells and human pancreas, and three control antigens (La = nuclear cell antigen, tetanus(More)
Family history of type 1 diabetes and autoantibodies to the islet antigens insulin (IAA), glutamate decarboxylase (GADA), and the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 (IA-2A) are strong predictors of type 1 diabetes, but the rate of progression to diabetes in multiple islet autoantibody-positive relatives varies widely. We asked whether detailed(More)
The incidence of type 1 diabetes varies markedly between countries. As enterovirus infections have been linked to type 1 diabetes, we determined whether this variation correlates with the frequency of enterovirus infections in different Caucasian populations in Europe. Enterovirus antibodies were examined in the background population (1-year-old and(More)