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The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity, using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria, in four cohorts of children and adolescents living in Poland in different economic eras: communist economy (1977/1978), crisis of the 1980s (1987/1988), political and economic transformation (1992/1994) and the(More)
BACKGROUND Body ornamentation is becoming more and more popular, especially among young people. AIMS To establish the sociodemographic characteristics of people with tattoos or body piercing and to analyze the motivations for body ornamentation. METHODS The questionnaire studies were undertaken in Lodz--one of the largest cities in Poland. The data was(More)
UNLABELLED Transsexualism is considered to be an extreme end in a large group of gender identity disorders. Two main types of transsexualism are identified: male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM). Transsexual persons have a feeling of being incarcerated in a foreign body and therefore they wish to change their sex by hormone therapy and surgical(More)
The trend to ornamenting the human body by piercings and tattoos which is observed all over the world is becoming more and more popular. The aim of this research was to compare the frequency of complications occurring after piercing and tattooing and to analyze the conditions under which the procedures were performed. The research was based on the results(More)
INTRODUCTION During the last few decades the meaning of anthropometric methods has increased. Many medical disciplines use measurements of human body in clinical diagnosis, treatment planning and determining the best time for operation. In Polish literature current norms for nose development do not exist, however nose is particulary often the subject of(More)
Twenty-two variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms - SNPs) of the genes involved in hair pigmentation (OCA2, HERC2, MC1R, SLC24A5, SLC45A2, TPCN2, TYR, TYRP1) were genotyped in a group of 186 Polish participants, representing a range of hair colours (45 red, 64 blond, 77 dark). A genotype-phenotype association analysis was performed. Using z-statistics we(More)
BACKGROUND The emergence of deciduous teeth, despite being genetically determined, shows significant correlation with the pre-natal environment, maternal factors, method of infant feeding and also family socioeconomic status. However, reported results are often contradictory and rarely concern healthy, full-term children. AIM The objective of this study(More)
OBJECTIVE Development of human tooth enamel is a part of a foetus's development; its correctness is the outcome of genetic and maternal factors shaping its prenatal environment. Many authors reported that individuals born in different seasons experience different early developmental conditions during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated the effects of(More)
The neonatal line (NNL) is used to distinguish developmental events observed in enamel which occurred before and after birth. However, there are few studies reporting relationship between the characteristics of the NNL and factors affecting prenatal conditions. The aim of the study was to determine prenatal factors that may influence the NNL thickness in(More)
One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and(More)