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The extension and retraction of filopodia in response to extracellular cues is thought to be an important initial step that determines the direction of growth cone advance. We sought to understand how the dynamic behavior of the actin cytoskeleton is regulated to produce extension or retraction. By observing the movement of fiduciary marks on actin(More)
Microtubule dynamics have key roles in mitotic spindle assembly and chromosome movement [1]. Fast turnover of spindle microtubules at metaphase and polewards flux of microtubules (polewards movement of the microtubule lattice with depolymerization at the poles) at both metaphase and anaphase have been observed in mammalian cells [2]. Imaging spindle(More)
We have used time-lapse digital imaging microscopy to examine cytoplasmic astral microtubules (Mts) and spindle dynamics during the mating pathway in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mating begins when two cells of opposite mating type come into proximity. The cells arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and grow a projection towards one another(More)
We have used a new technique, micro-CALI (chromophore-assisted laser inactivation), to investigate the function of the neural cell adhesion molecules fasciclin I and II in the development of the grasshopper Ti1 neurons. Micro-CALI of fasciclin I results in defasciculation of the Ti1 axons similar to that achieved using large scale CALI (Jay and Keshishian,(More)
Mathematical models are increasingly used to understand how phenotypes emerge from systems of molecular interactions. However, their current construction as monolithic sets of equations presents a fundamental barrier to progress. Overcoming this requires modularity, enabling sub-systems to be specified independently and combined incrementally, and(More)
It is highly desirable to be able to optically probe biological activities deep inside live organisms. By employing a spatially confined excitation via a nonlinear transition, multiphoton fluorescence microscopy has become indispensable for imaging scattering samples. However, as the incident laser power drops exponentially with imaging depth due to(More)
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