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We describe a genetic variation map for the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This map is based on a comparison of the sequences of three domestic chicken breeds (a broiler, a layer and a Chinese silkie) with that of their wild ancestor, red jungle fowl. Subsequent experiments indicate that at least 90% of the(More)
Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) proteins protect the host from intracellular pathogens and cellular abnormalities through the binding of peptide fragments derived primarily from intracellular proteins. These peptide-MHC complexes are displayed at the cell surface for inspection by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Here we reveal how MHC I molecules(More)
MHC class I molecules display peptides at the cell surface to cytotoxic T cells. The co-factor tapasin functions to ensure that MHC I becomes loaded with high affinity peptides. In most mammals, the tapasin gene appears to have little sequence diversity and few alleles and is located distal to several classical MHC I loci, so tapasin appears to function in(More)
The intracellular trafficking of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) proteins is directed by three quality control mechanisms that test for their structural integrity, which is correlated to the binding of high-affinity antigenic peptide ligands. To investigate which molecular features of MHC-I these quality control mechanisms detect, we have(More)
The biggest roadblock in development of effective vaccines against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the virus genetic diversity. For T-cell vaccine, this can be tackled by focusing the vaccine-elicited T-cells on the highly functionally conserved regions of HIV-1 proteins, mutations in which typically cause a replicative fitness loss, and by(More)
Major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC I) present peptides to cytotoxic T-cells at the surface of almost all nucleated cells. The function of MHC I molecules is to select high affinity peptides from a large intracellular pool and they are assisted in this process by co-factor molecules, notably tapasin. In contrast to mammals, MHC(More)
Our understanding of the antigen presentation pathway has recently been enhanced with the identification that the tapasin-related protein TAPBPR is a second major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-specific chaperone. We sought to determine whether, like tapasin, TAPBPR can also influence MHC class I peptide selection by functioning as a peptide(More)
Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) proteins provide protection from intracellular pathogens and cancer via each of a cell's MHC I molecules binding and presenting a peptide to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. MHC I genes are highly polymorphic and can have significant diversity, with polymorphisms predominantly localised in the peptide-binding groove(More)
The chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has strong genetic associations with resistance and susceptibility to certain infectious pathogens. The cell surface expression level of MHC class I molecules varies as much as 10-fold between chicken haplotypes and is inversely correlated with diversity of peptide repertoire and with resistance to Marek's(More)
An outbreak of coccidiosis in a group of forty Jersey cattle is reported. This group formed part of a population of 200 dairy cattle. Severe infection by Dictyocaulus viviparus occurred prior to this outbreak of coccidiosis. The two clinical pictures were confined to the group of Jerseys, which animals had been imported from Denmark during the previous(More)