Andy N Fitch

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Ice formation and recrystallization is a key phenomenon in freezing and freeze-drying of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals. In this investigation, high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction is used to quantify the extent of disorder of ice crystals in binary aqueous solutions of a cryoprotectant (sorbitol) and a protein, bovine serum albumin. Ice(More)
Measurements of grain growth in nanocrystalline Fe reveal a linear dependence of the grain size on annealing time, contradicting studies in coarser-grained materials, which find a parabolic (or power-law) dependence. When the grain size exceeds approximately 150 nm, a smooth transition from linear to nonlinear growth kinetics occurs, suggesting that the(More)
The primary focus of the present work is the study of the effects that two ligands and the crystallization pH have on the crystalline forms of human insulin. For this purpose, human insulin (HI) was co-crystallized with two distinct phenolic derivatives: the organic ligands meta-cresol (m-cresol) and 4-nitrophenol. The formation of polycrystalline(More)
This study focuses on the effects of the organic ligand 4-ethylresorcinol on the crystal structure of human insulin using powder X-ray crystallography. For this purpose, systematic crystallization experiments have been conducted in the presence of the organic ligand and zinc ions within the pH range 4.50-8.20, while observing crystallization behaviour(More)
School of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QJ, UK Institute for Polymers and Organic Solids and Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 IBM Research Division, Zurich Research Laboratory 8803 Rüschlikon, Switzerland; Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126(More)
A 'powder-poling' technique was developed to study electric field induced structural transformations in ferroelectrics exhibiting a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The technique was employed on soft PZT exhibiting a large longitudinal piezoelectric response (d(33) ∼ 650 pC N(-1)). It was found that electric poling brings about a considerable degree of(More)
The compounds tetrakis(trimethylstannyl)germane, Ge(SnMe3)4 (1), and tetrakis(trimethylstannyl)silane, Si(SnMe3)4 (2), have crystal structures with the quasispherical molecules in a closed-packed stacking. At room temperature both structures have the space group P1 (Z = 2) with a = 9.94457 (5), b = 14.52927 (8), c = 9.16021 (5) A, alpha = 90.53390 (30),(More)
The structure of YbV4O8 is related to the CaFe2O4 structure type. VO6 octahedra form a three-dimensional framework with tunnels in which the Yb3+ ions are incorporated. Two different polymorphs alpha and beta are known and differ mainly in the arrangement of the Yb ions within the framework. We studied the structure and magnetic properties of alpha-YbV4O8(More)