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In the present study, concurrent treatment with robotic step training and a serotonin agonist, quipazine, generated significant recovery of locomotor function in complete spinal cord-transected mice (T7-T9) that otherwise could not step. The extent of recovery achieved when these treatments were combined exceeded that obtained when either treatment was(More)
Robotic training paradigms that enforce a fixed kinematic control might be suboptimal for rehabilitative training because they abolish variability, an intrinsic property of neuromuscular control (Jezernik et al., 2003). In the present study we introduce "assist-as-needed" (AAN) robotic training paradigms for rehabilitation of spinal cord injury subjects. To(More)
We investigated the role of afferent information during recovery of coordinated rhythmic activity of the hindlimbs in rats with a complete spinal cord section (approximately T8) and unilateral deafferentation (T12-S2) to answer the following questions: (1) Can bilateral stepping be generated with only afferent projections intact on one side? (2) Can the(More)
The importance of the in vivo dynamic nature of the circuitries within the spinal cord that generate locomotion is becoming increasingly evident. We examined the characteristics of hindlimb EMG activity evoked in response to epidural stimulation at the S1 spinal cord segment in complete midthoracic spinal cord-transected rats at different stages of(More)
Novel flexible parylene-based high-density electrode arrays have been developed for functional electrical stimulation in retinal and spinal cord prosthetics. These arrays are microfabricated according to a single-metal-layer process and a revolutionary dual-metal-layer process that promises to meet the needs of extremely high-density stimulation(More)
This paper emphasizes several characteristics of the neural control of locomotion that provide opportunities for developing strategies to maximize the recovery of postural and locomotor functions after a spinal cord injury (SCI). The major points of this paper are: (i) the circuitry that controls standing and stepping is extremely malleable and reflects a(More)
For a complete adult spinal rat to regain some weight-bearing stepping capability, it appears that a sequence of specific proprioceptive inputs that are similar, but not identical, from step to step must be generated over repetitive step cycles. Furthermore, these cycles must include the activation of specific neural circuits that are intrinsic to the(More)
Over the past 20 years, tremendous advances have been made in the field of spinal cord injury research. Yet, consumed with individual pieces of the puzzle, we have failed as a community to grasp the magnitude of the sum of our findings. Our current knowledge should allow us to improve the lives of patients suffering from spinal cord injury. Advances in(More)
Novel flexible parylene-based high-density electrode arrays have been developed for functional electrical stimulation in retinal and spinal cord applications. These electrode arrays are microfabricated according to single-metal-layer and, most recently, dual-metal-layer processes. A new heat-molding process has been implemented to conform electrode arrays(More)