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We have chosen two members of the microbial RNase family, barnase and binase, which have 85% identity (17 substitutions and 1 deletion) and almost identical three-dimensional structure, to study the evolution of protein stability. The 17 residues that differ are scattered throughout the molecule. Each of the 17 differing residues has been mutated(More)
The beta-glucosidase from Alcaligenes faecalis has been purified to homogeneity (880-fold purification, 11% yield) using a combination of classical techniques and medium pressure ion-exchange chromatography. It is a dimeric enzyme of monomer molecular weight 50,000 and has no specific requirement for divalent metal ions. It has a high specificity for(More)
Industrial-scale starch liquefaction is currently constrained to operating at pH 6.0 and above, as the enzyme used in the process, Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase, is unstable at lower pH under the conditions used. There is a need to develop an enzyme that can operate at lower pH. Recent progress has been made in engineering the B. licheniformis enzyme(More)
Ten C16 chain-length compounds were identified from heptane extracts of ovipositors of female melonworm,Diaphania hyalinata (L.). The major constituents of the extracts were (E)-11-hexadecenal and (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal [(E,E)-10,12–16:Ald] and the alcohols and acetates of these olefins were found in trace amounts (<2%). Extracts also contained traces(More)
Three mutants of barnase and a pro-barnase variant, which have a variety of different physical properties but the same overall protein structure, were analysed for their folding in the presence of the molecular chaperone GroEL. Mutants were chosen on the basis that changes in their refolding rate constants in solution are not correlated with the changes in(More)
Although humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) calves are reported to vocalize, this has not been measurably verified. During March 2006, an underwater video camera and two-element hydrophone array were used to record nonsong vocalizations from a mother-calf escort off Hawaii. Acoustic data were analyzed; measured time delays between hydrophones provided(More)
Barnase is found to have a series of subsites for binding its substrates that confers large rate enhancements. Ribonucleotide substrates of the type Zp0Gp1Xp2Y have been synthesized, where p is phosphate, X, Y, and Z are nucleosides, and G is guanosine. G occupies the primary specificity site. The most important subsite is for p2, followed by that for Y.(More)
The crystal structure of an alkaline Bacillus cellulase catalytic core, from glucoside hydrolase family 5, reveals a novel combination of the catalytic machinery of two classic textbook enzymes. The enzyme has the expected two glutamate residues in close proximity to one another in the active-site that are typical of retaining cellulases. However, the(More)
Phenylalanine-327 of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) from Rhodospirillum rubrum was mutated to tryptophan, leucine, valine, alanine, and glycine, and was also deleted. The least active mutant, the deletion mutant, exhibits less than 0.5% of the carboxylase activity of the wild-type enzyme. Steady-state kinetic analysis of F327-->Leu,(More)
Three species of tRNA(Tyr) have been examined as substrates for the transfer reaction of the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) from Bacillus stearothermophilus: Escherichia coli tRNA(Tyr), B. stearothermophilus tRNA(Tyr) expressed in E. coli, and B. stearothermophilus tRNA(Tyr) that has been transcribed in vitro. The binding of the first two substrates to(More)