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Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV co-infections place an immense burden on health care systems and pose particular diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Infection with HIV is the most powerful known risk factor predisposing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and progression to active disease, which increases the risk of latent TB reactivation 20-fold. TB is(More)
There is an urgent need for an efficient vaccine against tuberculosis. Here, we explore the potential role of carbohydrate antigens as part of a new tuberculosis vaccine. Emphasis is placed on carbohydrate-protein conjugate vaccines, using the arabinomannan portion of lipoarabinomannan, a major structural surface component of Mycobacterium tuberculosis(More)
Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a major structural carbohydrate antigen of the outer surface of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. High antibody titres against LAM are often seen in active tuberculosis (TB). The role of such LAM-specific antibodies in the immune response against TB is unknown. Here we have investigated a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) SMITB14 of IgG1(More)
Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a major structural surface component of mycobacteria. Arabinomannan (AM) oligosaccharides derived from LAM of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were isolated and covalently conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) or to short-term culture filtrate proteins (antigen 85B (Ag85B) or a 75kDa protein) from M. tuberculosis strain Harlingen. The(More)
The TB Vaccine Cluster project funded by the EU Fifth Framework programme aims to provide novel vaccines against tuberculosis that are suitable for evaluation in humans. This paper describes the studies of the protective efficacy of vaccines in a guinea pig aerosol-infection model of primary tuberculosis. The objective was to conduct comparative evaluations(More)
We hypothesized that the ability of BCG vaccination to protect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is less in hosts exposed to chronic helminthes infection compared to unexposed individuals. To test this hypothesis we evaluated the efficacy of BCG vaccination in protecting against M. tuberculosis challenge in Schistosoma mansoni pre-infected mice by(More)
The current live attenuated vaccine against tuberculosis, BCG, poses a risk of disseminated infections in immunocompromised subjects. Therefore, in this study we compared the protective effect of a heat-killed bacille Calmette-Guerin (H-kBCG) vaccine given in a new adjuvant (Eurocine L3) with the protection provided by the conventional live attenuated BCG(More)
The incidence of mycobacterial diseases is high and the efficacy of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) is low in most areas of the world where chronic worm infections are common. However, if and how concurrent worm infections could affect immunity to mycobacterial infections has not been elucidated. In this study we investigated whether infection of mice with(More)
There is an urgent need for improved tools for laboratory diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB). Here, we describe two methods, a catch-up ELISA and a dipstick test based on the detection in urine of lipoarabinomannan (LAM). LAM is a major and specific glycolipid component of the outer mycobacterial cell wall. Preliminary experiments showed that LAM is(More)