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Fusion of blastomeres of 2-cell mouse embryos with an intact zona pellucida can be induced with electric pulses. Fusion was most frequent with the field strength of 1 kV/cm and direct current pulses of 100-250 microsec duration. An electrolyte solution (PBS) can be used instead of a non-electrolyte solution (0.3 M mannitol). The viability of blastomeres(More)
Sixteen inner or outer blastomeres from 16-cell embryos and 32 inner or outer blastomeres from 32-cell embryos (nascent blastocysts) were reaggregated and cultured in vitro. In 24 h old blastocysts developed from blastomeres derived from 16-cell embryos the expression of Cdx2 protein was upregulated in outer cells (new trophectoderm) of the inner(More)
The potential of parthenogenetically activated mouse oocytes to remodel somatic cell nuclei was studied by ultrastructural means using oocyte-thymocyte hybrids. Complete nuclear remodeling, initiated by nuclear envelope breakdown and chromosome condensation (which is followed by formation of pronucleus-like nucleus) is possible only during a short time gap(More)
Cell and developmental studies have clarified how, by the time of implantation, the mouse embryo forms three primary cell lineages: epiblast (EPI), primitive endoderm (PE), and trophectoderm (TE). However, it still remains unknown when cells allocated to these three lineages become determined in their developmental fate. To address this question, we studied(More)
Cytostatic factor (CSF) is an activity responsible for the metaphase II arrest in vertebrate oocytes. This activity maintains a high level of maturation promoting factor (MPF) in the oocyte and both activities are destroyed after fertilization or parthenogenetic activation. To study some of the characteristics of the mechanism involved in MPF and CSF(More)
Cells originating from the thymus of newborn mice were fused with mouse oocytes using polyethylene glycol. The behaviour of thymocyte nuclei was studied in non-activated metaphase II oocytes, and in oocytes activated in vitro with ethanol. In non-activated oocytes all thymocyte nuclei undergo premature chromosome condensation with individualization of(More)
The aim of this study was to obtain mice, hopefully identical multiplets, from single diploid blastomeres isolated at the 4-cell stage, or from pairs of sister blastomeres isolated at the 8-cell stage. To this end isolated blastomeres were aggregated with one or two tetraploid carrier embryos produced by electrofusion of 2-cell embryos. Diploid embryos were(More)