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Human spermatozoa are quiescent in the male reproductive system and must undergo activation once introduced into the female reproductive tract. This process is known to require alkalinization of sperm cytoplasm, but the mechanism responsible for transmembrane proton extrusion has remained unknown because of the inability to measure membrane conductance in(More)
Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Upon activation by long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), UCP1 increases the conductance of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) to make BAT mitochondria generate heat rather than ATP. Despite being a member of the family of mitochondrial anion(More)
The paper discusses some recently solved problems of wave dynamics in the ionosphere as well as the methods developed for analysis and solving of them: (1) a possibility of waveguiding AGW in upper atmosphere; (2) resonant atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) in inhomogeneous atmospheric waveguide; (3) planetary electromagnetic waves (PEMW) in the system(More)
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