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Human spermatozoa are quiescent in the male reproductive system and must undergo activation once introduced into the female reproductive tract. This process is known to require alkalinization of sperm cytoplasm, but the mechanism responsible for transmembrane proton extrusion has remained unknown because of the inability to measure membrane conductance in(More)
Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Upon activation by long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), UCP1 increases the conductance of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) to make BAT mitochondria generate heat rather than ATP. Despite being a member of the family of mitochondrial anion(More)
Crystalline silicon (Si) nanoparticles present an extremely promising object for bioimaging based on photoluminescence (PL) in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions, but their efficient PL emission in aqueous suspension is typically observed after wet chemistry procedures leading to residual toxicity issues. Here, we introduce ultrapure(More)
A field-theoretic description of the critical behaviour of systems with quenched defects obeying a power law correlations ∼ |x| −a for large separations x is given. Directly for three-dimensional systems and different values of correlation parameter 2 ≤ a ≤ 3 a renormalization analysis of scaling function in the two-loop approximation is carried out, and(More)
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