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The amount and composition of sugar units comprising polysaccharides in sapwood and heartwood, or stemwood, of 11 industrially important pulpwood species were analysed. The polysaccharide content was between 60 and 80% (w/w) for all species, with cellulose as the predominant polysaccharide type and glucuronoxylans as the main non-cellulosic polysaccharides.(More)
Norway spruce saw meal was extracted with pressurized hot water at 120–240°C using a flow-through system. Only small amounts of hemicelluloses were extracted at 120–160°C, but dissolution was significantly enhanced when higher extraction temperatures were applied. All hemicelluloses but only 15% of lignin were removed from wood at 220°C, and even less(More)
Phloem production and structural development were interlinked with seasonal variation in the primary and secondary metabolites of phloem. Novel microtechniques provided new perspectives on understanding phloem structure and chemistry. To gain new insights into phloem formation in Norway spruce (Picea abies), we monitored phloem cell production and seasonal(More)
Phenolic stilbene glucosides (astringin, isorhapontin, and piceid) and their aglycons commonly accumulate in the phloem of Norway spruce (Picea abies). However, current knowledge about the localization and accumulation of stilbenes within plant tissues and cells remains limited. Here, we used an innovative combination of novel microanalytical techniques to(More)
Different model compounds for lignin, hemicelluloses and pectins were studied by time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF–SIMS). Mass spectra of Klason lignin from normal and compression spruce wood, aspen wood and wheat straw were compared. Spectra of brominated spruce and aspen wood sections showed fragment ions attributed to brominated(More)
The effect of five different wood particle size fractions between 0.5 and 12.5 mm on hot-water extraction of acetylated water-soluble hemicelluloses from spruce wood with a batch extraction setup at 170 °C was investigated. Extraction kinetics, with regard to particle size, was also studied. The purpose was to intensify the hemicellulose extraction for high(More)
Ground spruce wood was extracted with water at 170 °C at four different pH levels (3.8, 4.0, 4.2 and 4.4) achieved by using phthalate buffers. Static batch extractions were carried out in an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE-300). The extracted non-cellulosic carbohydrates, predominantly galactoglucomannans (GGMs), were characterised mainly by sugar unit(More)
Two methods for separation of polymeric galactoglucomannans (GGMs) from a hot-water extract of spruce wood, i.e., membrane filtration and precipitation in ethanol-water, were compared. Filtration through a series of membranes with different pore sizes separated GGMs of different molar masses, from polymers to oligomers. Only polysaccharides were(More)
Norway spruce O-acetyl-galactoglucomannans (GGM) are water-soluble hemicelluloses that have potential to be produced in large scale as a side product of the mechanical pulping industry or by hot-water extraction of wood. Chemical modification is often needed to tailor such water-soluble polysaccharides into industrially valuable compounds. In this work,(More)
Water-soluble O-acetyl-galactoglucomannans (GGMs) can be obtained from Norway spruce by hot-water-extraction of the wood or as a side product by ultrafiltration of mechanical pulping waters. Cationic and amphiphilic polysaccharides and their derivatives are of interest for a number of applications and thus quaternary nitrogen moieties with cationic charge(More)