Andrey Shadrin

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Bacteriophages (phages) appropriate essential processes of bacterial hosts to benefit their own development. The multisubunit bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAp) enzyme, which catalyses DNA transcription, is targeted by phage-encoded transcription regulators that selectively modulate its activity. Here, we describe the structural and mechanistic basis for the(More)
Infection of Escherichia coli by the T7 phage leads to rapid and selective inhibition of the host RNA polymerase (RNAP)--a multi-subunit enzyme responsible for gene transcription--by a small ( approximately 7 kDa) phage-encoded protein called Gp2. Gp2 is also a potent inhibitor of E. coli RNAP in vitro. Here we describe the first atomic resolution structure(More)
Bacteriophages (phages) appropriate essential processes of bacterial hosts to benefit their own development. The multisubunit bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAp) enzyme, which catalyses DNA transcription, is targeted by phage-encoded transcription regulators that selectively modulate its activity. Here, we describe the structural and mechanistic basis for the(More)
Many bacteriophages produce small proteins that specifically interfere with the bacterial host transcription machinery and thus contribute to the acquisition of the bacterial cell by the bacteriophage. We recently described how a small protein, called P7, produced by the Xp10 bacteriophage inhibits bacterial transcription initiation by causing the(More)
Gp2, a 7 kDa protein encoded by T7 bacteriophage, is a potent inhibitor of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAp), the enzyme responsible for transcription of all bacterial genes and early viral genes. A prominent feature in the structure of Gp2 is a contiguous strip of seven negatively charged amino acid residues (negatively charged strip or NCS), located(More)
The Escherichia coli-infecting bacteriophage T7 encodes a 7 kDa protein, called Gp2, which is a potent inhibitor of the host RNA polymerase (RNAp). Gp2 is essential for T7 phage development. The interaction site for Gp2 on the E. coli RNAp is the β' jaw domain, which is part of the DNA binding channel. The binding of Gp2 to the β' jaw antagonizes several(More)
The capacity of pathogens to respond to environmental signals, such as iron concentration, is key to bacterial survival and establishment of a successful infection. Bacillus cereus is a widely distributed bacterium with distinct pathogenic properties. Hemolysin II (HlyII) is one of its pore-forming cytotoxins and has been shown to be involved in bacterial(More)
In [1] the almost complete formal verification of a small hypervisor with the automated C code verifier VCC [2] was reported: the correctness of the C portions of the hypervisor and of the guest simulation was established; the verification of the assembler portions of the code was left as future work. Suitable methodology for the verification of Macro(More)
Successful infection of Escherichia coli by bacteriophage T7 relies upon the transcription of the T7 genome by two different RNA polymerases (RNAps). The bacterial RNAp transcribes early T7 promoters, whereas middle and late T7 genes are transcribed by the T7 RNAp. Gp2, a T7-encoded transcription factor, is a 7 kDa product of an essential middle T7 gene 2,(More)
Hemolysin II (HlyII) is a pore-forming toxin of the opportunistic pathogen Bacillus cereus. Despite our understanding of the mechanism of HlyII cytotoxicity in vitro, many of its characteristics, including potential target cells, conditions of its action and expression, are not known. Here we report that the expression of hlyII in Bacillus subtilis renders(More)