Andrey Shadrin

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The capacity of pathogens to respond to environmental signals, such as iron concentration, is key to bacterial survival and establishment of a successful infection. Bacillus cereus is a widely distributed bacterium with distinct pathogenic properties. Hemolysin II (HlyII) is one of its pore-forming cytotoxins and has been shown to be involved in bacterial(More)
Phylogenetic interrelation between 40 strains of the Bacillus cereus group has been established using BcREP fingerprinting. The PCR method has shown that the frequency of occurrence of the genes of cytotoxin K (cytK) and hemolysin II (hlyII) is 61% and 56%, respectively, and the gene of the hemolysin II regulator (hlyIIR) occurs together with hlyII.(More)
Bacteriophages (phages) appropriate essential processes of bacterial hosts to benefit their own development. The multisubunit bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAp) enzyme, which catalyses DNA transcription, is targeted by phage-encoded transcription regulators that selectively modulate its activity. Here, we describe the structural and mechanistic basis for the(More)
Infection of Escherichia coli by the T7 phage leads to rapid and selective inhibition of the host RNA polymerase (RNAP)--a multi-subunit enzyme responsible for gene transcription--by a small ( approximately 7 kDa) phage-encoded protein called Gp2. Gp2 is also a potent inhibitor of E. coli RNAP in vitro. Here we describe the first atomic resolution structure(More)
Hemolysin II (HlyII) is a pore-forming toxin of the opportunistic pathogen Bacillus cereus. Despite our understanding of the mechanism of HlyII cytotoxicity in vitro, many of its characteristics, including potential target cells, conditions of its action and expression, are not known. Here we report that the expression of hlyII in Bacillus subtilis renders(More)
The Escherichia coli-infecting bacteriophage T7 encodes a 7 kDa protein, called Gp2, which is a potent inhibitor of the host RNA polymerase (RNAp). Gp2 is essential for T7 phage development. The interaction site for Gp2 on the E. coli RNAp is the β' jaw domain, which is part of the DNA binding channel. The binding of Gp2 to the β' jaw antagonizes several(More)
In [1] the almost complete formal verification of a small hypervisor with the automated C code verifier VCC [2] was reported: the correctness of the C portions of the hypervisor and of the guest simulation was established; the verification of the assembler portions of the code was left as future work. Suitable methodology for the verification of Macro(More)
Bacteriophages (phages) appropriate essential processes of bacterial hosts to benefit their own development. The multisubunit bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAp) enzyme, which catalyses DNA transcription, is targeted by phage-encoded transcription regulators that selectively modulate its activity. Here, we describe the structural and mechanistic basis for the(More)
Pervasive formal verification of operating systems and hypervisors is, due to their safety-critical aspects, a highly relevant area of research. Many implementations consist of both assembler and C functions. Formal verification of their correctness must consider the correct interaction of code written in these languages, which is, in practice, ensured by(More)