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In recent work, we have argued for a formal treatment of confidence about the claims made in dependability cases for software-based systems. The key idea underlying this work is "the inevitability of uncertainty": It is rarely possible to assert that a claim about safety or reliability is true with certainty. Much of this uncertainty is epistemic in nature,(More)
To understand decision processes in CAD-supported breast screening by analysing how prompts affect readers’ judgements of individual mammographic features (lesions). To this end we analysed hitherto unexamined details of reports completed by mammogram readers in an earlier evaluation of a CAD tool. Assessments of lesions were extracted from 5,839 reports(More)
We summarise a set of analyses and studies conducted to assess the effects of the use of a computer-aided detection (CAD) tool in breast screening. We have used an interdisciplinary approach that combines: (a) statistical analyses inspired by reliability modelling in engineering; (b) experimental studies of decisions of mammography experts using the tool,(More)
BACKGROUND Computer aids can affect decisions in complex ways, potentially even making them worse; common assessment methods may miss these effects. We developed a method for estimating the quality of decisions, as well as how computer aids affect it, and applied it to computer-aided detection (CAD) of cancer, reanalyzing data from a published study where(More)
the use of computerised advisory systems: a case study. Online is checked for eligibility for copyright before being made available in the live archive. URLs from City Research Online may be freely distributed and linked to from other web pages. Enquiries If you have any enquiries about any aspect of City Research Online, or if you wish to make contact with(More)
In this paper we present empirical results and speculative analysis based on observations collected over a two month period from studies with two high interaction honeynets, deployed in a corporate and an SME (small to medium enterprise) environment, and a distributed honeypots deployment. All three networks contain a mixture of Windows and Linux hosts. We(More)
Despite the widespread adoption of software diversity in some industries, there is still controversy about its benefits for reliability, safety or security. We take the prospective of diversity as a risk reduction strategy, in face of the uncertainty about the dependability levels delivered by software development. We specifically consider the problem faced(More)
The goal of the data collection and analyses described in this paper was to investigate the effects of incorrect output from a CAD tool on the reliability of the decisions of its human users. Our work follows on a clinical trial that evaluated the impact of introducing a computerised prompting tool (R2 ImageChecker) as part of the breast screening programme(More)