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Abnormal expression and signaling of ErbB receptors has been implicated in multiple epithelial malignancies, including pancreatic cancer. Erlotinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), has been recently approved for pancreatic cancer treatment, but there are no reliable predictors of patient response. Expression of… (More)
BACKGROUND Treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors can result in clinical response in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) for some unselected patients. EGFR and KRAS mutation status, amplification of EGFR, or gene expression predictors of response can forecast sensitivity to EGFR… (More)
BACKGROUND We sought to investigate the role of ErbB3-mediated signalling on the interaction between pancreatic cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) and carcinoma cells in an effort to disrupt tumourigenic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) stromal-epithelial cross-communication. METHODS Primary CAF cultures were established from human PDAC surgical… (More)
Background. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can be differentiated in vitro by aggregation and/or retinoic acid (RA) treatment. The principal differentiation lineage in vitro is extraembryonic primitive endoderm. Dab2, Laminin, GATA4, GATA5, and GATA6 are expressed in embryonic primitive endoderm and play critical roles in its lineage commitment. Results. We… (More)
We say that L is weakly η-like if L/ ∼ is isomorphic to the natural ordering of rational numbers. We construct a computable presentation of any low weakly η-like linear ordering with no strongly η-like interval. Also we prove that there exists a noncomputably presentable low 2 weakly η-like linear ordering with no strongly η-like interval.