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This paper describes various components of the macromolecular crystallographic refinement program REFMAC5, which is distributed as part of the CCP4 suite. REFMAC5 utilizes different likelihood functions depending on the diffraction data employed (amplitudes or intensities), the presence of twinning and the availability of SAD/SIRAS experimental diffraction(More)
Biological macromolecules are polymers and therefore the restraints for macromolecular refinement can be subdivided into two sets: restraints that are applied to atoms that all belong to the same monomer and restraints that are associated with the covalent bonds between monomers. The CCP4 template-restraint library contains three types of data entries(More)
The success of molecular replacement is critically dependent on the quality of the search model. Several model-preparation procedures are integrated in the molecular-replacement program MOLREP. These include model modification on the basis of amino-acid sequence alignment and model correction based on analysis of the solvent-accessibility of the atoms. The(More)
It is not uncommon for protein crystals to crystallize with more than a single molecule per asymmetric unit. When more than a single molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, various pathological situations such as twinning, modulated crystals and pseudo translational or rotational symmetry can arise. The presence of pseudosymmetry can lead to(More)
This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current nu(mu) interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10(20) 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events(More)
  • C Adloff, V Andreev, V Arkadov, A Astvatsatourov, I Ayyaz, A Babaev +321 others
  • 1999
The inclusive single and double differential cross-sections for neutral and charged current processes with four-momentum transfer squared É ¾ between ½½¼ and ¿¼ ¼¼¼ Î ¾ and with Bjorken Ü between ¼¼¼¿¾ and ¼ are measured in · Ô collisions. The data were taken with the H1 detector at HERA between 1994 and 1997, and they correspond to an integrated luminosity(More)
Spore formation in Bacillus subtilis begins with an asymmetric cell division, following which differential gene expression is established by alternative compartment-specific RNA polymerase σ factors. The spoIISAB operon of B. subtilis was identified as a locus whose mutation leads to increased activity of the first sporulation-specific sigma factor, σ(F).(More)
Differential measurements of elliptic flow (v2) for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt[sNN]=200 GeV are used to test and validate predictions from perfect fluid hydrodynamics for scaling of v2 with eccentricity, system size, and transverse kinetic energy (KE T). For KE T identical with mT-m up to approximately 1 GeV the scaling is compatible with(More)
The CBM Collaboration proposes to build a dedicated heavy-ion experiment to investigate the properties of highly compressed baryonic matter as it is produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the future accelerator facility in Darmstadt. Our goal is to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of moderate temperatures but very high baryon densities. The(More)