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The direction of frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps is an important temporal cue in animal and human communication. FM direction-selective neurons are found in the primary auditory cortex (A1), but their topography and the mechanisms underlying their selectivity remain largely unknown. Here we report that in the rat A1, direction selectivity is topographically(More)
In primary auditory cortex (AI) neurons, tones typically evoke a brief depolarization, which can lead to spiking, followed by a long-lasting hyperpolarization. The extent to which the hyperpolarization is due to synaptic inhibition has remained unclear. Here we report in vivo whole cell voltage-clamp measurements of tone-evoked excitatory and inhibitory(More)
Primary visual cortex (V1) is the site at which orientation selectivity emerges in mammals: visual thalamus afferents to V1 respond equally to all stimulus orientations, whereas their target V1 neurons respond selectively to stimulus orientation. The emergence of orientation selectivity in V1 has long served as a model for investigating cortical(More)
In the mammalian cerebral cortex, neural responses are highly variable during spontaneous activity and sensory stimulation. To explain this variability, the cortex of alert animals has been proposed to be in an asynchronous high-conductance state in which irregular spiking arises from the convergence of large numbers of uncorrelated excitatory and(More)
The recent characterization of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic receptive fields in rat auditory cortex laid the basis for further investigation of the roles of synaptic excitation and inhibition in cortical computation and plasticity. The mouse is an increasingly important model system because of the wide range of genetic tools available for it. Here we(More)
Intensity-tuned auditory cortex neurons have spike rates that are nonmonotonic functions of sound intensity: their spike rate initially increases and peaks as sound intensity is increased, then decreases as sound intensity is further increased. They are either "unbalanced," receiving disproportionally large synaptic inhibition at high sound intensities; or(More)
Orientation selectivity is a property of mammalian primary visual cortex (V1) neurons, yet its emergence along the visual pathway varies across species. In carnivores and primates, elongated receptive fields first appear in V1, whereas in lagomorphs such receptive fields emerge earlier, in the retina. Here we examine the mouse visual pathway and reveal the(More)
The mammalian brain is an enormously complex set of circuits composed of interconnected neuronal cell types. The analysis of central neural circuits will be greatly served by the ability to turn off specific neuronal cell types while recording from others in intact brains. Because drug delivery cannot be restricted to specific cell types, this can only be(More)
In primary auditory cortex (AI) neurons, tones typically evoke a brief depolarization, which can lead to spiking, followed by a long-lasting hyperpolarization. The extent to which the hyperpolarization is due to synaptic inhibition has remained unclear. Here we report in vivo whole-cell voltage-clamp measurements of tone-evoked excitatory and inhibitory(More)
Visual disruption early in development dramatically changes how primary visual cortex neurons integrate binocular inputs. The disruption is paradigmatic for investigating the synaptic basis of long-term changes in cortical function, because the primary visual cortex is the site of binocular convergence. The underlying alterations in circuitry by visual(More)