Andrew Y-C Shum

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Oxidative stress in the brain has been increasingly associated with the development of numerous human neurological diseases. Microglia, activated upon neuronal injury or inflammatory stimulation, are known to release superoxide anion (*O(2) (-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and nitric oxide (NO), thereby further contributing to oxidative neurotoxicity.(More)
In vivo and in vitro studies were carried out to examine the putative hypotensive actions of S-petasin, a sesquiterpene extracted from the medicinal plant Petasites formosanus. Intravenous S-petasin (0.1-1.5 mg/kg) in anesthetized rats produced a dose-dependent hypotensive effect. In isolated aortic ring, isometric contraction elicited by KCl or the L-type(More)
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are known to mediate brain inflammation following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), but the precise mechanisms leading to PMN recruitment are undefined. The alpha-chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) has specificity for the recruitment of PMNs. In this study, we found that 8 or 12 h of hypoxia followed by 24-h(More)
A simple but effective coupling of microdialysis and microbore liquid chromatograph with UV detection technique was applied to the simultaneous studying of the pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime in both the peripheral compartment and central nervous system. The mobile phase consisted of methanol-100 mM monosodium phosphoric acid (25:75, v/v, pH 5.5) pumped(More)
1. Baicalein is a bioactive flavonoid isolated from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, a medicinal herb that has been used since ancient times to treat bacterial infections. As little is known concerning its pharmacokinetics, this study focussed on its pharmacokinetics as well as the possible roles of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein on its(More)
Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) causes cell injury/death. We examined the protection by drugs intervening at various stages of the injury cascade in cultured neurons and glia. Primary cultures of rat cortical neurons and mixed glia were subjected to H/R. Measurements of cell death (by lactate dehydrogenase release into the medium) and viability (by MTT(More)
The current study looked at plasma catecholamines, clinical autonomic function tests, and hemodynamic parameters in 10 ESRD patients (five men and five woman, aged 56.4 +/- 3.6) with dialysis hypotension and 10 patients (five men and five women, aged 58.6 +/- 4.2) without dialysis hypotension. Catecholamines were measured using high performance liquid(More)
The roles of the endothelium, Ca2+ and K+ fluxes in the evodiamine-induced attenuation of vascular contractile responses to vasoactive agents were examined. The results showed that: (1) in rat mesenteric artery rings, evodiamine elicited a concentration-dependent attenuation in the contractile response generated by phenylephrine. The inhibitory potency was(More)
Although ethanol has long been recognized as an immunosuppressant, the effects of ethanol on immune functions in the central nervous system (CNS) have not been well characterized. Glial cells function as immune effector cells within the CNS. Nitric oxide (NO), generated by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) of activated glial cells, appears to participate in the(More)
We conducted studies to investigate the nature and underlying mechanisms of the vascular effects of rutaecarpine (Rut), an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herbal drug Evodia rutaecarpa. By using largely the effects on phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction in the isolated rat aorta as the experimental index and by comparison with several known vascular(More)