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Archaea and Bacteria constitute a majority of life systems on Earth but have long been considered inferior to Eukarya in terms of solute tolerance. Whereas the most halophilic prokaryotes are known for an ability to multiply at saturated NaCl (water activity (a(w)) 0.755) some xerophilic fungi can germinate, usually at high-sugar concentrations, at values(More)
Whereas osmotic stress response induced by solutes has been well-characterized in fungi, less is known about the other activities of environmentally ubiquitous substances. The latest methodologies to define, identify and quantify chaotropicity, i.e. substance-induced destabilization of macromolecular systems, now enable new insights into microbial stress(More)
X-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography make use of the refraction of X-rays by the sample in image formation. This provides considerable additional information in the image compared to conventional X-ray imaging methods, which rely solely on X-ray absorption by the sample. Phase-contrast imaging highlights edges and internal boundaries of a sample and(More)
SmpA is a small outer-membrane lipoprotein that is a component of the essential YaeT outer-membrane protein assembly complex. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), expression of the smpA gene was shown to be directed by two promoters, smpAp1 and smpAp2. The more distal promoter, smpAp1, is dependent upon the extracytoplasmic stress(More)
OBJECTIVE This study describes the application of a new radiographic imaging modality, phase-contrast radiography, to in vitro human temporal bone imaging and investigates its use in the development of new electrode arrays for cochlear implants. BACKGROUND The development of perimodiolar electrode arrays for cochlear implants requires detailed information(More)
BACKGROUND High-dose synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) has shown the potential to deliver improved outcomes over conventional broadbeam (BB) radiation therapy. To implement synchrotron MRT clinically for cancer treatment, it is necessary to undertake dose equivalence studies to identify MRT doses that give similar outcomes to BB treatments. (More)
We briefly review currently practiced methods of X-ray phase contrast imaging and consider some of their relative features, especially in regard to applicability to clinical medical studies. Various related technological issues and promising future areas of development are also briefly discussed.
There is a pressing need to understand and optimize biological control so as to avoid over-reliance on the synthetic chemical pesticides that can damage environmental and human health. This study focused on interactions between a novel biocontrol-strain, Bacillus sp. JC12GB43, and potato-pathogenic Phytophthora and Fusarium species. In assays carried out in(More)
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