Andrew W Duncan

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Wnt signalling is involved in numerous events in animal development, including the proliferation of stem cells and the specification of the neural crest. Wnt proteins are potentially important reagents in expanding specific cell types, but in contrast to other developmental signalling molecules such as hedgehog proteins and the bone morphogenetic proteins,(More)
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the ability to renew themselves and to give rise to all lineages of the blood; however, the signals that regulate HSC self-renewal remain unclear. Here we show that the Wnt signalling pathway has an important role in this process. Overexpression of activated beta-catenin expands the pool of HSCs in long-term cultures by(More)
A fundamental question in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) biology is how self-renewal is controlled. Here we show that the molecular regulation of two critical elements of self-renewal, inhibition of differentiation and induction of proliferation, can be uncoupled, and we identify Notch signaling as a key factor in inhibiting differentiation. Using transgenic(More)
Contracts describe an agreement between the writer and the user of a class. Their use enhances programmer productivity and program reliability, especially in library code. Handshake provides contracts for Java classes and interfaces in the form of class invariants and method preand postconditions. Using Handshake, a programmer can add contracts to classes(More)
Mononucleated and binucleated polyploid hepatocytes (4n, 8n, 16n and higher) are found in all mammalian species, but the functional significance of this conserved phenomenon remains unknown. Polyploidization occurs through failed cytokinesis, begins at weaning in rodents and increases with age. Previously, we demonstrated that the opposite event, ploidy(More)
One of the defining features of the liver is the capacity to maintain a constant size despite injury. Although the precise molecular signals involved in the maintenance of liver size are not completely known, it is clear that the liver delicately balances regeneration with overgrowth. Mammals, for example, can survive surgical removal of up to 75% of the(More)
The Rac/Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Vav-1, is a key component of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-linked signaling machinery. Here we have used somatic cell gene-targeting technology to generate a Vav-1-deficient Jurkat T-cell line. The J.Vav1 cell line exhibits dramatic defects in TCR-dependent interleukin (IL)-2 promoter activation,(More)
The molecular identification of adult hepatic stem/progenitor cells has been hampered by the lack of truly specific markers. To isolate putative adult liver progenitor cells, we used cell surface-marking antibodies, including MIC1-1C3, to isolate subpopulations of liver cells from normal adult mice or those undergoing an oval cell response and tested their(More)
The goal of these several lectures is to discuss in more details some properties of integers. In what follows Z = {0, 1,−1, 2,−2, 3,−3, . . . , n,−n, . . . } will denote the set of all integers and it will be our universe of discourse. By N = {1, 2, 3, . . . , n, . . .} we denote the set of positive integers. If otherwise is stated, letters a, b, c, . . . ,(More)
Over half of the mature hepatocytes in mice and humans are aneuploid and yet retain full ability to undergo mitosis. This observation has raised the question of whether this unusual somatic genetic variation evolved as an adaptive mechanism in response to hepatic injury. According to this model, hepatotoxic insults select for hepatocytes with specific(More)