Andrew W. Artenstein

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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates of envelope genotype E are contributing substantially to the global pandemic. These strains appear to be mosaics, with the gag gene from clade A and the envelope from clade E; the parental clade E strain has not been found. Here we report the first full genomic sequence of one such mosaic virus, isolate CM240(More)
Characterization of persons highly exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 who remain uninfected may help define protective immunity. Seventeen HIV-1-seronegative Thai female sex workers (CSWs) with epidemiologic evidence of exposure to HIV-1 were studied for humoral immune responses and phenotypic and genotypic analyses of HLA class I and CCR5(More)
From the Center for Biodefense and Emerging Pathogens, Department of Medicine, Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island, Pawtucket; and the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI. Address reprint requests to Dr. Artenstein at the Center for Biodefense and Emerging Pathogens, Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island, 111 Brewster St., Pawtucket,(More)
A 26-year-old veterinary technician who became infected with B virus at the site of a needlestick injury is described. After the patient was treated with intravenous acyclovir, all cultures became negative for B virus and have remained so during treatment with oral acyclovir. The literature on infections due to B virus in humans is reviewed, and a detailed(More)
Of the nine genetic subtypes of HIV-1 that exist world wide, subtype B predominates in North America and Europe. Thus, most knowledge about HIV-1 and most vaccine development efforts are based on subtype B viruses. We document here the detection of HIV-1 subtypes A, D, and E in five US servicemen who acquired these non-subtype-B infections during overseas(More)
This work presents the clinical application of a robust and unique approach for RNA amplification, called a simple method for amplifying RNA targets (SMART), for the detection and identification of subtypes of H1N1 pandemic, H1N1 seasonal, and H3N2 seasonal influenza virus. While all the existing amplification techniques rely on the diffusion of two(More)
Multiple genetic subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been identified among internationally collected isolates. The HIV-1 epidemic in Thailand is largely due to B and E subtypes of virus. Dual infection with distinct HIV-1 subtypes would suggest that antiviral immunity evoked by one subtype can be incompletely protective against a(More)
Despite the eradication of smallpox as a naturally occurring disease, concern persists over its potential use as a bioterrorist agent. The development of a new-generation smallpox vaccine represents an important contribution to a cogent biodefense strategy. We conducted a phase 2 randomized, double-blind, controlled trial at four sites in the United States(More)
There are nine recognised genetic subtypes of HIV-1, and the epidemic in Southeast Asia is largely due to subtype E. We have investigated HIV-1 viral subtypes in 11 Uruguayan military personnel, six with infection acquired during a United Nations deployment to Cambodia and five with infection acquired in South America. We found subtype E in five of the six(More)
The recognition that smallpox is a potential threat agent of bioterrorism has engendered renewed interest in the development of improved vaccines against this pathogen. The purpose of this paper is to review current data regarding novel approaches to smallpox vaccines in comparison with traditional vaccine strategies. The method used is a literature search(More)