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We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with genetic mapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome. More than 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified. Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplication event; about 8000 pairs of(More)
Spike-triggered averaging of EMG is a useful experimental technique for revealing functional connectivity from central neurons to motoneurons. Because EMG waveforms constitute time series, statistical analysis of spike-triggered averages is complicated. Empirical methods generally have been employed to detect the presence of post-spike effects (PSEs),(More)
This cortical stimulation mapping study investigates the neural representation of action and object naming. Data from 13 neurosurgical subjects undergoing awake cortical mapping is presented. Our findings indicate clear evidence of differential disruption of noun and verb naming in the context of this naming task. At the individual level, evidence was found(More)
Presumably, second-language (L2) learning is mediated by changes in the brain. Little is known about what changes in the brain, how the brain changes, or when these changes occur during learning. Here, we illustrate by way of example how modern brain-based methods can be used to discern some of the changes that occur during L2 learning. Preliminary results(More)
1. We studied the responses of rat hypoglossal and cat lumbar motoneurones to a variety of excitatory and inhibitory injected current transients during repetitive discharge. The amplitudes and time courses of the transients were comparable to those of the synaptic currents underlying unitary and small compound postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) recorded in(More)
1. We studied the responses of rat hypoglossal motoneurones to excitatory current transients (ECTs) using a brainstem slice preparation. Steady, repetitive discharge at rates of 12-25 impulses s-1 was elicited from the motoneurones by injecting long (40 s) steps of constant current. Poisson trains of the ECTs were superimposed on these steps. The effects of(More)
We present detailed shape measurements of several barchan dunes in southern Morocco, near Laayoune. Using thesê data, we disprove the concept of shape invariance of barchan dunes of different sizes. Nevertheless, some parts of the barchan dune scale and we try to distinguish these from non-scaling ones. Furthermore, we point out the importance of the exact(More)
The study of human brain electrophysiology has extended beyond traditional frequency ranges identified by the classical EEG rhythms, encompassing both higher and lower frequencies. Changes in high-gamma-band (>70 Hz) power have been identified as markers of local cortical activity. Fluctuations at infra-slow (<0.1 Hz) frequencies have been associated with(More)
The relationship between changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuronal activity remains controversial. Data collected during awake neurosurgical procedures for the treatment of epilepsy provided a rare opportunity to examine this relationship in human temporal association cortex. We obtained functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen(More)
After large lesions of the primary motor cortex (M1), voluntary movements of affected body parts are weak and slow. In addition, the relative independence of moving one body part without others is lost; attempts at individuated movements of a given body part are accompanied by excessive, unintended motion of contiguous body parts. The effects of partial(More)