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The existence and functional importance of RNA secondary structure in the replication of positive-stranded RNA viruses is increasingly recognized. We applied several computational methods to detect RNA secondary structure in the coding region of hepatitis C virus (HCV), including thermodynamic prediction, calculation of free energy on folding, and a newly(More)
Discrete RNA secondary and higher-order structures, typically local in extent, play a fundamental role in RNA virus replication. Using new bioinformatics analysis methods, we have identified genome-scale ordered RNA structure (GORS) in many genera and families of positive-strand animal and plant RNA viruses. There was remarkably variability between genera(More)
There is accumulating evidence from bioinformatic studies that hepatitis C virus (HCV) possesses extensive RNA secondary structure in the core and NS5B-encoding regions of the genome. Recent functional studies have defined one such stem-loop structure in the NS5B region as an essential cis-acting replication element (CRE). A program was developed(More)
The genome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) contains cis-acting replication elements (CREs) comprised of RNA stem-loop structures located in both the 5' and 3' noncoding regions (5' and 3' NCRs) and in the NS5B coding sequence. Through the application of several algorithmically independent bioinformatic methods to detect phylogenetically conserved,(More)
Hepatitis G virus (HGV)/GB virus C (GBV-C) causes persistent, non-pathogenic infection in a large proportion of the human population. Epidemiological and genetic evidence indicates a long-term association between HGV/GBV-C and related viruses and a range of primate species, and the co-speciation of these viruses with their hosts during primate evolution.(More)
The RNA structure and long-range interactions of the SL9266 cis-acting replication element located within the NS5B coding region of hepatitis C virus (HCV) were determined using selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analysed by primer extension. Marked differences were found in the long-range interactions of SL9266 when the two widely used genotype 2a JFH-1(More)
We provide experimental evidence of a replication enhancer element (REE) within the capsid gene of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV, genus Flavivirus). Thermodynamic and phylogenetic analyses predicted that the REE folds as a long stable stem-loop (designated SL6), conserved among all tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV). Homologous sequences and potential(More)
Over 50 million humans live in areas of potential exposure to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). The disease exhibits an estimated 16,000 cases recorded annually over 30 European and Asian countries. Conventionally, TBEV transmission to Ixodes spp. ticks occurs whilst feeding on viraemic animals. However, an alternative mechanism of non-viraemic(More)
A phylogenetically conserved RNA structure within the NS5B coding region of hepatitis C virus functions as a cis-replicating element (CRE). Integrity of this CRE, designated SL9266 (alternatively 5BSL3.2), is critical for genome replication. SL9266 forms the core of an extended pseudoknot, designated SL9266/PK, involving long distance RNA-RNA interactions(More)
The specific packaging of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome is hypothesised to be driven by Core-RNA interactions. To identify the regions of the viral genome involved in this process, we used SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) to identify RNA aptamers which bind specifically to Core in vitro. Comparison of these aptamers to(More)