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The range of possibilities for future climate evolution needs to be taken into account when planning climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. This requires ensembles of multi-decadal simulations to assess both chaotic climate variability and model response uncertainty. Statistical estimates of model response uncertainty, based on observations of(More)
Due to the nature of processing within the accumbens shell (AccSh) and the presence of orexin receptors and varicosities within the AccSh, we hypothesized that orexin A may partly regulate feeding behavior and locomotor activity via signaling in this site. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with guide cannulae directed to the(More)
RATIONALE Centrally administered orexin A induces both feeding and locomotion in rats. Thus, the feeding response following orexin A administration may be secondary to general increases in activity rather than a specific motivation to eat. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study is to determine whether orexin A increases the motivation to eat. METHODS The effect(More)
RATIONALE Disruption of CB(1) receptor signaling through the use of CB(1) (-/-) mice or the CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716) has been demonstrated to impair extinction of learned responses in conditioned fear and Morris water maze tasks. In contrast, CB(1) (-/-) mice exhibited normal extinction rates in an appetitively motivated operant(More)
It is firmly established that the hippocampus, a brain region implicated in spatial learning, episodic memory, and consolidation, contains a high concentration of CB(1) receptors. Moreover, systemic and intrahippocampal administration of cannabinoid agonists have been shown to impair hippocampal-dependent memory tasks. However, the degree to which CB(1)(More)
Valproic acid (VPA) is widely used clinically, as an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer but is, however, also known to block cell proliferation through its ability to inhibit histone deacetylase enzymes. There have been a number of reports of cognitive impairments in patients taking VPA. In this investigation we examined the relationship between cognition(More)
Repeated administration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, induces profound tolerance that correlates with desensitization and downregulation of CB(1) cannabinoid receptors in the CNS. However, the consequences of repeated administration of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine(More)
It is firmly established that the hippocampus, a brain region implicated in spatial learning, episodic memory, and consolidation, contains a high concentration of CB 1 receptors. Moreover, systemic and intrahippocampal administration of cannabinoid agonists have been shown to impair hippocampal-dependent memory tasks. However, the degree to which CB 1(More)
Orexin A (OX-A) administered in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) increases feeding in a dose-dependent manner. The LH is a relatively large neural structure with a heterogeneous profile of neural inputs, efferent projections, and orexin receptor distribution. We sought to determine the LH region most sensitive to the feeding stimulatory effect of OX-A(More)
CB 1 receptor-compromised animals show profound deficits in extinguishing learned behavior from aversive conditioning tasks, but display normal extinction learning in appetitive operant tasks. However, it is difficult to discern whether the differential involvement of the endogenous cannabinoid system on extinction results from the hedonics or the required(More)