Learn More
In cancer treatment, apoptosis is a well-recognized cell death mechanism through which cytotoxic agents kill tumor cells. Here we report that dying tumor cells use the apoptotic process to generate potent growth-stimulating signals to stimulate the repopulation of tumors undergoing radiotherapy. Furthermore, activated caspase 3, a key executioner in(More)
Protein kinases and phosphatases are targeted through association with anchoring proteins that tether the enzymes to subcellular structures and organelles. Through in situ fluorescent techniques using a Green Fluorescent Protein tag, we have mapped membrane-targeting domains on AKAP79, a multivalent anchoring protein that binds the cAMP-dependent protein(More)
Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) can increase or decrease the amount of cell death in response to various stimuli. To test whether autophagy also controls the characteristics associated with dying cells, we studied tumor cell killing by epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted diphtheria toxin (DT-EGF). DT-EGF kills epithelial and(More)
Excitotoxic insults such as cerebral ischemia are thought to enhance neuronal autophagy, which is then thought to promote neuronal cell death. Excitotoxic insults indeed increase autophagy markers. Notably, however, autophagy markers can be increased either by autophagy induction (as this enhances their production) or by late-stage autophagy inhibition (as(More)
Autophagy regulates cell death both positively and negatively, but the molecular basis for this paradox remains inadequately characterized. We demonstrate here that transient cell-to-cell variations in autophagy can either promote cell death or survival depending on the stimulus and cell type. By separating cells with high and low basal autophagy by flow(More)
The adapter protein tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)1-associated death domain (TRADD) plays an essential role in recruiting signaling molecules to the TNFRI receptor complex at the cell membrane. Here we show that TRADD contains a nuclear export and import sequence that allow shuttling between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In the absence of export,(More)
Mutations of the mismatch repair genes hMSH2 and hMLH1 have been found in a high proportion of individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), establishing the link between mismatch repair and cancer. Tumor cell lines that are deficient in mismatch repair develop a mutator phenotype that appears to drive the accumulation of mutations required(More)
Autophagy is a membrane-trafficking process that delivers cytoplasmic constituents to lysosomes for degradation. It contributes to energy and organelle homeostasis and the preservation of proteome and genome integrity. Although a role in cancer is unquestionable, there are conflicting reports that autophagy can be both oncogenic and tumor suppressive,(More)