Learn More
The subventricular zone (SVZ) is a principal source of adult neural stem cells in the rodent brain, generating thousands of olfactory bulb neurons every day. If the adult human brain contains a comparable germinal region, this could have considerable implications for future neuroregenerative therapy. Stem cells have been isolated from the human brain, but(More)
This report presents the historical experience, clinical presentation, treatment, prognosis, and pathogenesis of gliosarcoma described to date in the English literature. PubMed query of term "gliosarcoma" was performed, followed by a rigorous review of cited literature. Articles selected for analysis included: (1) case reports of gliosarcoma, (2) review(More)
The central nervous system (CNS) historically has been considered an immune-privileged organ, lacking a lymphatic system and shielded from the circulatory system by the blood-brain barrier. Microglia are an abundant portion of the CNS cell population, comprising 5% to 20% of the total glial cell population, and are as numerous as neurons. A crucial function(More)
The activating receptor NKG2D, expressed by natural killer (NK) cells and CD8(+) T cells, has a role in the specific killing of transformed cells. We examined NKG2D expression in patients with glioblastoma multiforme and found that NKG2D was downregulated on NK cells and CD8(+) T cells. Expression of NKG2D on lymphocytes significantly increased following(More)
OBJECT Ependymomas are primary central nervous system tumors that occur more frequently in the spines of adults than they do there in children. Previous studies consist mainly of retrospective single-institutional experiences or case studies. In this study, a comprehensive literature review was performed on reported cases of spinal ependymoma treated with(More)
OBJECT The tumor microenvironment in astrocytomas is composed of a variety of cell types, including infiltrative inflammatory cells that are dynamic in nature, potentially reflecting tumor biology. In this paper the authors demonstrate that characterization of the intratumoral inflammatory infiltrate can distinguish high-grade glioblastoma from low-grade(More)
OBJECT Although secondary gliosarcoma after treatment of primary glioblastoma multiforme has been described, little is known of these rare tumors. In this article the authors review the literature on secondary gliosarcoma, with attention to clinical course and pathological features. METHODS A PubMed search of the key word intracranial "gliosarcoma" with(More)
In patients with glioma, the tumor microenvironment can significantly impact pro-inflammatory immune cell functions. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs are poorly defined. Because immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Treg) are over represented in the tumor microenvironment compared with peripheral blood, we hypothesized that the tumor may have an(More)
OBJECT To date, glioma immunotherapy has been focused mostly on stimulating antitumor peripheral lymphocyte responses; however, some data suggest that microglia and/or macrophages (not lymphocytes) are the predominant inflammatory cells infiltrating gliomas. To study this hypothesis further, the authors analyzed inflammatory cell infiltrates in fresh human(More)
Given its rarity, appropriate treatment for pineocytoma remains variable. As the literature primarily contains case reports or studies involving a small series of patients, prognostic factors following treatment of pineocytoma remain unclear. We therefore compiled a systematic review of the literature concerning post-treatment outcomes for pineocytoma to(More)