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The subventricular zone (SVZ) is a principal source of adult neural stem cells in the rodent brain, generating thousands of olfactory bulb neurons every day. If the adult human brain contains a comparable germinal region, this could have considerable implications for future neuroregenerative therapy. Stem cells have been isolated from the human brain, but(More)
The central nervous system (CNS) historically has been considered an immune-privileged organ, lacking a lymphatic system and shielded from the circulatory system by the blood-brain barrier. Microglia are an abundant portion of the CNS cell population, comprising 5% to 20% of the total glial cell population, and are as numerous as neurons. A crucial function(More)
The activating receptor NKG2D, expressed by natural killer (NK) cells and CD8(+) T cells, has a role in the specific killing of transformed cells. We examined NKG2D expression in patients with glioblastoma multiforme and found that NKG2D was downregulated on NK cells and CD8(+) T cells. Expression of NKG2D on lymphocytes significantly increased following(More)
OBJECT Ependymomas are primary central nervous system tumors that occur more frequently in the spines of adults than they do there in children. Previous studies consist mainly of retrospective single-institutional experiences or case studies. In this study, a comprehensive literature review was performed on reported cases of spinal ependymoma treated with(More)
OBJECT The tumor microenvironment in astrocytomas is composed of a variety of cell types, including infiltrative inflammatory cells that are dynamic in nature, potentially reflecting tumor biology. In this paper the authors demonstrate that characterization of the intratumoral inflammatory infiltrate can distinguish high-grade glioblastoma from low-grade(More)
OBJECT To date, glioma immunotherapy has been focused mostly on stimulating antitumor peripheral lymphocyte responses; however, some data suggest that microglia and/or macrophages (not lymphocytes) are the predominant inflammatory cells infiltrating gliomas. To study this hypothesis further, the authors analyzed inflammatory cell infiltrates in fresh human(More)
Given its rarity, appropriate treatment for pineocytoma remains variable. As the literature primarily contains case reports or studies involving a small series of patients, prognostic factors following treatment of pineocytoma remain unclear. We therefore compiled a systematic review of the literature concerning post-treatment outcomes for pineocytoma to(More)
Although the World Health Organization (WHO) categorizes spinal ependymomas into three histological grades, difference in surgical outcomes between WHO grades I and II tumors are unclear. For these benign tumors, prognosis may be best determined by factors other than tumor grade alone, such as extent of resection. To analyze the effects of the extent of(More)
OBJECT The value of extent of resection (EOR) in improving survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains controversial. Specifically, it is unclear what proportion of contrast-enhancing tumor must be resected for a survival advantage and how much survival improves beyond this threshold. The authors attempt to define these values for the(More)
OBJECT Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) frequently infiltrate highly functional or "eloquent" brain areas. Given the lack of long-term survival data, the prognostic significance of eloquent brain tumor location and the role of functional mapping during resective surgery in presumed eloquent brain regions are unknown. METHODS We performed a retrospective analysis(More)