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The genomes of the spirochaetes Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum show strong strand-specific skews in nucleotide composition, with the leading strand in replication being richer in G and T than the lagging strand in both species. This mutation bias results in codon usage and amino acid composition patterns that are significantly different between(More)
Synonymous codon usage varies considerably among Caenorhabditis elegans genes. Multivariate statistical analyses reveal a single major trend among genes. At one end of the trend lie genes with relatively unbiased codon usage. These genes appear to be lowly expressed, and their patterns of codon usage are consistent with mutational biases influenced by the(More)
Genes that belong to the same functional pathways are often packaged into operons in prokaryotes. However, aside from examples in nematode genomes, this form of transcriptional regulation appears to be absent in eukaryotes. Nevertheless, a number of recent studies have shown that gene order in eukaryotic genomes is not completely random, and that genes with(More)
We have described a bioinformatic approach that involves the clustering of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to reveal homologs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway in the chicken. Homology searching of proteins, predicted to be encoded by these EST clusters, resulted in the in silico identification of full-length sequences for Toll-interacting protein(More)
The adaptive immune system is not completely developed when chickens hatch, so the innate immune system has evolved a range of mechanisms to deal with early pathogenic assault. Avian beta-defensins (AvBDs) and cathelicidins (CTHLs) are two major sub-classes of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with a fundamental role in both innate and adaptive immune(More)
The recent determination of the complete sequence of chromosome III from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae allows, for the first time, the investigation of the long range primary structure of a eukaryotic chromosome. We have found that, against a background G+C level of about 35%, there are two regions (one in each chromosome arm) in which G+C values rise(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of highly conserved molecules that initiate the innate immune response to pathogens by recognizing structural motifs expressed by microbes. We have identified a novel TLR, TLR15, by bioinformatic analysis of the chicken genome, which is distinct from any known vertebrate TLR and thus appears to be avian specific. The(More)
Silent sites (positions that can undergo synonymous substitutions) in protein-coding genes can illuminate two evolutionary processes. First, despite being silent, they may be subject to natural selection. Among eukaryotes this is exemplified by yeast, where synonymous codon usage patterns are shaped by selection for particular codons that are more(More)
Codon usage in a sample of 28 genes from the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans has been analysed using multivariate statistical analysis. A major trend among genes, correlated with gene expression level, was identified. We have focussed on the extent and nature of divergence between C.albicans and the closely related yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was(More)