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Synonymous codon usage varies considerably among Caenorhabditis elegans genes. Multivariate statistical analyses reveal a single major trend among genes. At one end of the trend lie genes with relatively unbiased codon usage. These genes appear to be lowly expressed, and their patterns of codon usage are consistent with mutational biases influenced by the(More)
BACKGROUND The application of conjoint analysis (including discrete-choice experiments and other multiattribute stated-preference methods) in health has increased rapidly over the past decade. A wider acceptance of these methods is limited by an absence of consensus-based methodological standards. OBJECTIVE The International Society for Pharmacoeconomics(More)
BACKGROUND Extracting biological knowledge from large amounts of gene expression information deposited in public databases is a major challenge of the postgenomic era. Additional insights may be derived by data integration and cross-platform comparisons of expression profiles. However, database meta-analysis is complicated by differences in experimental(More)
Editorial Summertime again ! Well what passes for summer in Ire-land, where they refer to 24 hours of constant drizzling rain as "a grand soft day" and have a hopelessly optimistic view of the weather. It turns out that the editorial team was not being hopelessly optimistic when it promised to deliver volume 4.2 of embnet.news within a month of the last,(More)
Suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins are classic inhibitors of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. Many cytokines and pathogenic mediators induce expression of SOCS, which act in a negative feedback loop to inhibit further signal transduction. SOCS mRNA expression is regulated by DNA binding of(More)
The use of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants as live microbial biofertilizers provides a promising alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Inorganic phosphate solubilization is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by plant associated bacteria. This involves bacteria releasing organic acids into the soil which(More)
Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is associated with several post-infectious manifestations, including onset of the autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Poorly-cooked chicken meat is the most frequent source of infection as C. jejuni colonizes the avian(More)
The basis for understanding the characteristics of gene functional categories in chicken has been enhanced by the ongoing sequencing of the zebra finch genome, the second bird species to be extensively sequenced. This sequence provides an avian context for examining how variation in chicken has evolved since its divergence from its common ancestor with(More)
Cathelicidins comprise a major group of host-defence peptides. Conserved across a wide range of species, they have several functions related to host defence. Only one cathelicidin has been found in humans but several cathelicidin genes occur in the bovine genome. We propose that these molecules may have a protective role against mastitis. The aim of this(More)
The enteropathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a major worldwide health and economic burden, being one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis and commonly linked to postinfectious onset of autoimmune disease. Chickens are a major vector for human infection and even though variation in avian colonization level is heritable, no previous studies have(More)