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BACKGROUND Colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy provide protection against colorectal cancer, but the magnitude and duration of protection, particularly against cancer of the proximal colon, remain uncertain. METHODS We examined the association of the use of lower endoscopy (updated biennially from 1988 through 2008) with colorectal-cancer incidence (through(More)
BACKGROUND Regular use of aspirin reduces the risk of a colorectal neoplasm, but the mechanism by which aspirin affects carcinogenesis in the colon is not well understood. METHODS We estimated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression by immunohistochemical assay of sections from paraffin-embedded colorectal-cancer specimens from two large cohorts of(More)
CONTEXT Aspirin reduces risk of colorectal neoplasia in randomized trials and inhibits tumor growth and metastases in animal models. However, the influence of aspirin on survival after diagnosis of colorectal cancer is unknown. OBJECTIVE To examine the association between aspirin use after colorectal cancer diagnosis on colorectal cancer-specific and(More)
Colorectal cancer has been strongly associated with a Western lifestyle. In the past several decades, much has been learned about the dietary, lifestyle, and medication risk factors for this malignancy. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating(More)
Genome-wide DNA hypomethylation plays has an important role in genomic instability and colorectal carcinogenesis. However, the relationship between cellular DNA methylation level and patient outcome remains uncertain. Using 643 colon cancers in two independent prospective cohorts, we quantified DNA methylation in repetitive long interspersed nucleotide(More)
IMPORTANCE It is important to document patterns of prescription drug use to inform both clinical practice and research. OBJECTIVE To evaluate trends in prescription drug use among adults living in the United States. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Temporal trends in prescription drug use were evaluated using nationally representative data from the(More)
BACKGROUND Regular use of aspirin after a diagnosis of colon cancer has been associated with a superior clinical outcome. Experimental evidence suggests that inhibition of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) (also known as cyclooxygenase-2) by aspirin down-regulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling activity. We hypothesized that the(More)
PURPOSE Physically active individuals have a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer but the influence of exercise on cancer survival is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS By a prospective, observational study of 573 women with stage I to III colorectal cancer, we studied colorectal cancer-specific and overall mortality according to predefined physical(More)
It remains unknown whether increased risk with low levels of vitamin D is present for colon and/or rectal cancer. To investigate the association between circulating vitamin D levels and colon and rectal cancer, we examined the associations between plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] and colon and rectal(More)