Andrew Stokes

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BACKGROUND Several sub-Saharan African countries have rapidly scaled up the number of households that own insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs). Although the efficacy of ITNs in trials has been shown, evidence on their impact under routine conditions is limited to a few countries and the extent to which the scale-up of ITNs has improved population health(More)
We estimate the effects of declining smoking and increasing obesity on mortality in the United States over the period 2010-2040. Data on cohort behavioral histories are integrated into these estimates. Future distributions of body mass indices are projected using transition matrices applied to the initial distribution in 2010. In addition to projections of(More)
The High-Activity Arthroplasty Score (HAAS) was specifically developed to assess subtle variations in functional ability after lower limb arthroplasty with particular regard to highly functioning individuals. The score was a 4-item self-assessment measure covering the 4 domains of walking, running, stair climbing, and general activities, with a possible(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal of this research was to identify the fraction of deaths attributable to diabetes in the United States. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We estimated population attributable fractions (PAF) for cohorts aged 30-84 who were surveyed in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) between 1997 and 2009 (N = 282,322) and in the National Health and(More)
BACKGROUND Many studies have documented an obesity paradox-a survival advantage of being obese-in populations diagnosed with a medical condition. Whether obesity is causally associated with improved mortality in these conditions is unresolved. METHODS We develop the logic of collider bias as it pertains to the association between smoking and obesity in a(More)
BACKGROUND The high prevalence of disease and associated weight loss at older ages limits the validity of prospective cohort studies examining the association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality. METHODS I examined mortality associated with excess weight using maximum BMI-a measure that is robust to confounding by illness-induced weight loss.(More)
OBJECTIVES The United States has the highest prevalence of obesity and one of the lowest life expectancies among high-income countries. We investigated the relationship between these 2 phenomena. METHODS We estimated the fraction of deaths attributable to obesity by country, age, and sex and reestimated life tables after removing these deaths. To allow(More)
Background The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality is controversial. Objective To investigate the relationship between maximum BMI over 16 years and subsequent mortality. Design 3 prospective cohort studies. Setting Nurses' Health Study I and II and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Participants 225 072 men and women with 32(More)
PURPOSE The health consequences of obesity are often assessed using categorical, self-reported data on body mass index (BMI). This article investigates the combined effects of categorization and self-report bias on the estimated association between obesity and mortality. METHODS We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-2008)(More)
Multi-transmitter aperture synthesis is a method in which multiple transmitters can be used to improve resolution and contrast of distributed aperture systems. Such a system utilizes multiple transmitter locations to interrogate a target from multiple look angles thus increasing the angular spectrum content captured by the receiver aperture array.(More)