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Cross-sectional studies in both humans and animals have demonstrated associations between obesity and altered reward functions at the behavioral and neural level, but it is unclear whether these alterations are cause or consequence of the obese state. Reward behaviors were quantified in male, outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD) and selected line obesity-prone (OP)(More)
Powerful biological mechanisms evolved to defend adequate nutrient supply and optimal levels of body weight/adiposity. Low levels of leptin indicating food deprivation and depleted fat stores have been identified as the strongest signals to induce adaptive biological actions such as increased energy intake and reduced energy expenditure. In concert with(More)
Gastric bypass surgery efficiently and lastingly reduces excess body weight and reverses type 2 diabetes in obese patients. Although increased energy expenditure may also play a role, decreased energy intake is thought to be the main reason for weight loss, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to(More)
CONTEXT Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is currently the most effective treatment for morbid obesity, and clinical studies suggest that RYGB patients change food preferences and the desire to eat. OBJECTIVE To examine hedonic reactions to palatable foods and food choice behavior in an established rat model of RYGB. METHODS AND DESIGN Male(More)
Given the unabated obesity problem, there is increasing appreciation of expressions like "my eyes are bigger than my stomach," and recent studies in rodents and humans suggest that dysregulated brain reward pathways may be contributing not only to drug addiction but also to increased intake of palatable foods and ultimately obesity. After describing recent(More)
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) remains to be the most effective long-term treatment for obesity and its associated comorbidities, but the specific mechanisms involved remain elusive. Because RYGB patients appear to no longer be preoccupied with thoughts about food and are satisfied with much smaller meals and calorically dilute foods, brain reward(More)
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity and remission of associated type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a rat model for RYGB surgery that allows repeated measurement of meal-induced changes in gut and pancreatic(More)
Visual question answering (VQA) task not only bridges the gap between images and language, but also requires that specific contents within the image are understood as indicated by linguistic context of the question, in order to generate the accurate answers. Thus, it is critical to build an efficient embedding of images and texts. We implement DualNet,(More)
Recently there have been major advances in the electro-mechanical design of upper extremity prosthetics. However, the development of control strategies for such prosthetics has lagged significantly behind. Conventional noninvasive myoelectric control strategies rely on the amplitude of electromyography (EMG) signals from flexor and extensor muscles in the(More)
Overindulgence in easily available energy-dense palatable foods is thought to be an important factor in the current obesity epidemic but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that mu-opioid receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens may be important. Protracted suppression of endogenous mu-opioid receptor signaling(More)