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Powerful biological mechanisms evolved to defend adequate nutrient supply and optimal levels of body weight/adiposity. Low levels of leptin indicating food deprivation and depleted fat stores have been identified as the strongest signals to induce adaptive biological actions such as increased energy intake and reduced energy expenditure. In concert with(More)
Gastric bypass surgery efficiently and lastingly reduces excess body weight and reverses type 2 diabetes in obese patients. Although increased energy expenditure may also play a role, decreased energy intake is thought to be the main reason for weight loss, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to(More)
Cross-sectional studies in both humans and animals have demonstrated associations between obesity and altered reward functions at the behavioral and neural level, but it is unclear whether these alterations are cause or consequence of the obese state. Reward behaviors were quantified in male, outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD) and selected line obesity-prone (OP)(More)
CONTEXT Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is currently the most effective treatment for morbid obesity, and clinical studies suggest that RYGB patients change food preferences and the desire to eat. OBJECTIVE To examine hedonic reactions to palatable foods and food choice behavior in an established rat model of RYGB. METHODS AND DESIGN Male(More)
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity and remission of associated type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a rat model for RYGB surgery that allows repeated measurement of meal-induced changes in gut and pancreatic(More)
Given the unabated obesity problem, there is increasing appreciation of expressions like "my eyes are bigger than my stomach," and recent studies in rodents and humans suggest that dysregulated brain reward pathways may be contributing not only to drug addiction but also to increased intake of palatable foods and ultimately obesity. After describing recent(More)
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) remains to be the most effective long-term treatment for obesity and its associated comorbidities, but the specific mechanisms involved remain elusive. Because RYGB patients appear to no longer be preoccupied with thoughts about food and are satisfied with much smaller meals and calorically dilute foods, brain reward(More)
The traditional view of neural regulation of body energy homeostasis focuses on internal feedback signals integrated in the hypothalamus and brainstem and in turn leading to balanced activation of behavioral, autonomic, and endocrine effector pathways leading to changes in food intake and energy expenditure. Recent observations have demonstrated that many(More)
OBJECTIVE Human adenovirus 36 (Ad-36) increases adiposity and reduces serum lipids in chicken, mouse, and non-human primate models, and it is linked to obesity in sero-epidemiological studies in humans. Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) or adipose tissue in the mechanism of Ad-36-induced adiposity is unknown. The effects of Ad-36 on adiposity(More)
BACKGROUND Aortic atresia or severe aortic stenosis and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is a frequent component of complex congenital heart disease. Aortic atresia or severe aortic stenosis and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with two adequate ventricles is sometimes treated by Norwood palliation followed by late biventricular repair.(More)