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Powerful biological mechanisms evolved to defend adequate nutrient supply and optimal levels of body weight/adiposity. Low levels of leptin indicating food deprivation and depleted fat stores have been identified as the strongest signals to induce adaptive biological actions such as increased energy intake and reduced energy expenditure. In concert with(More)
Given the unabated obesity problem, there is increasing appreciation of expressions like "my eyes are bigger than my stomach," and recent studies in rodents and humans suggest that dysregulated brain reward pathways may be contributing not only to drug addiction but also to increased intake of palatable foods and ultimately obesity. After describing recent(More)
Visual question answering (VQA) task not only bridges the gap between images and language, but also requires that specific contents within the image are understood as indicated by linguistic context of the question, in order to generate the accurate answers. Thus, it is critical to build an efficient embedding of images and texts. We implement DualNet,(More)
The traditional view of neural regulation of body energy homeostasis focuses on internal feedback signals integrated in the hypothalamus and brainstem and in turn leading to balanced activation of behavioral, autonomic, and endocrine effector pathways leading to changes in food intake and energy expenditure. Recent observations have demonstrated that many(More)
Overindulgence in easily available energy-dense palatable foods is thought to be an important factor in the current obesity epidemic but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that mu-opioid receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens may be important. Protracted suppression of endogenous mu-opioid receptor signaling(More)
Cross-sectional studies in both humans and animals have demonstrated associations between obesity and altered reward functions at the behavioral and neural level, but it is unclear whether these alterations are cause or consequence of the obese state. Reward behaviors were quantified in male, outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD) and selected line obesity-prone (OP)(More)
CONTEXT Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is currently the most effective treatment for morbid obesity, and clinical studies suggest that RYGB patients change food preferences and the desire to eat. OBJECTIVE To examine hedonic reactions to palatable foods and food choice behavior in an established rat model of RYGB. METHODS AND DESIGN Male(More)
Nucleus accumbens mu-opioid receptor activation can strongly stimulate intake of high-fat food in satiated rats, and one of the mechanisms involves activation of lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons and orexin receptor-1 signaling in the mesolimbic dopamine system. Here, we tested the potential contribution of NPY/Y1R and alpha-MSH/MC3/4R-signaling to(More)
The prevalence of obesity, and the cluster of serious metabolic diseases it is associated with, continues to rise globally, and hopes for effective treatment with drugs have been considerably set back. Thus, success with bariatric surgeries to induce sustained body weight loss and effectively cure most of the associated co-morbidities appears almost(More)
The superior efficacy of bariatric surgery compared with intensive medical treatment in reversing metabolic disease is now well accepted, but the critical mechanisms remain unknown. Unlike dieting, which triggers strong counter-regulatory responses such as hunger and craving, some obesity surgeries appear to permanently reset the level of defended body(More)