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In an overarm throw, as the hand opens and the ball rolls along the fingers, the ball exerts a back force on the fingers. Previous studies suggested that skilled throwers compensate for this back force by producing an appropriate finger flexor torque to oppose the back force, but it was unclear how this is controlled by the CNS. We investigated whether the(More)
Root dynamics are among the largest knowledge gaps in determining how terrestrial carbon (C) cycles will respond to environmental change. Increases in productivity accompanying plant invasions and introductions could increase ecosystem C storage, but belowground changes are unknown, even though roots may account for 50-90% of production in temperate(More)
For more than 30 years, the relationship between net primary productivity and species richness has generated intense debate in ecology about the processes regulating local diversity. The original view, which is still widely accepted, holds that the relationship is hump-shaped, with richness first rising and then declining with increasing productivity.(More)
Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light,(More)
Studies of experimental grassland communities have demonstrated that plant diversity can stabilize productivity through species asynchrony, in which decreases in the biomass of some species are compensated for by increases in others. However, it remains unknown whether these findings are relevant to natural ecosystems, especially those for which species(More)
Terrestrial ecosystem productivity is widely accepted to be nutrient limited(1). Although nitrogen (N) is deemed a key determinant of aboveground net primary production (ANPP)(2,3), the prevalence of co-limitation by N and phosphorus (P) is increasingly recognized(4-8). However, the extent to which terrestrial productivity is co-limited by nutrients other(More)
Long-term and persistent human disturbances have simultaneously altered the stability and diversity of ecological systems, with disturbances directly reducing functional attributes such as invasion resistance, while eliminating the buffering effects of high species diversity. Theory predicts that this combination of environmental change and diversity loss(More)
Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous(More)
Whether dominance drives species loss can depend on the power of conspecific self-limitation as dominant populations expand; these limitations can stabilize competitive imbalances that might otherwise cause displacement. We quantify the relative strength of conspecific and heterospecific soil feedbacks in an exotic-dominated savannah, using greenhouse(More)
Invasive plant species can form dense populations across large tracts of land. Based on these observations of dominance, invaders are often described as competitively superior, despite little direct evidence of competitive interactions with natives. The few studies that have measured competitive interactions have tended to compare an invader to natives that(More)