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RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the central enzyme of gene expression. Despite availability of crystal structures, details of its nucleotide addition cycle remain obscure. We describe bacterial RNAP inhibitors (the CBR703 series) whose properties illuminate this mechanism. These compounds inhibit known catalytic activities of RNAP (nucleotide addition,(More)
All cellular organisms use specialized RNA polymerases called "primases" to synthesize RNA primers for the initiation of DNA replication. The high-resolution crystal structure of a primase, comprising the catalytic core of the Escherichia coli DnaG protein, was determined. The core structure contains an active-site architecture that is unrelated to other(More)
The ArcB and ArcA proteins constitute a two-component signal transduction system that plays a broad role in transcriptional regulation. Under anoxic or environmentally reducing conditions, the sensor kinase (ArcB) is stimulated to autophosphorylate at the expense of ATP and subsequently transphosphorylates the response regulator (ArcA). ArcB is a complex,(More)
The Eph receptor VAB-1 is required in neurons for epidermal morphogenesis during C. elegans embryogenesis. Two models were proposed for the non-autonomous role of VAB-1: neuronal VAB-1 might signal directly to epidermis, or VAB-1 signaling between neurons might be required for epidermal development. We show that the ephrin VAB-2 (also known as EFN-1) is a(More)
the ssDNA-binding mouth of DnaG distal from DnaB, orienting the active site of primase inward, toward the center of the ring, where it is positioned to accept ssDNA as it is extruded from DnaB (Fig. 4, right). Alternatively , it is possible that mechanistic differences between 6:6 and 6 :1 helicase-primase systems lead to different relative orientations of(More)
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