Andrew S. Levey

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BACKGROUND Serum creatinine concentration is widely used as an index of renal function, but this concentration is affected by factors other than glomerular filtration rate (GFR). OBJECTIVE To develop an equation to predict GFR from serum creatinine concentration and other factors. DESIGN Cross-sectional study of GFR, creatinine clearance, serum(More)
BACKGROUND Equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are routinely used to assess kidney function. Current equations have limited precision and systematically underestimate measured GFR at higher values. OBJECTIVE To develop a new estimating equation for GFR: the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. DESIGN(More)
Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide public health problem with an increasing incidence and prevalence, poor outcomes, and high cost. Outcomes of chronic kidney disease include not only kidney failure but also complications of decreased kidney function and cardiovascular disease. Current evidence suggests that some of these adverse outcomes can be(More)
BACKGROUND Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimates facilitate detection of chronic kidney disease but require calibration of the serum creatinine assay to the laboratory that developed the equation. The 4-variable equation from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study has been reexpressed for use with a standardized assay. OBJECTIVE To(More)
CONTEXT The prevalence and incidence of kidney failure treated by dialysis and transplantation in the United States have increased from 1988 to 2004. Whether there have been changes in the prevalence of earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) during this period is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To update the estimated prevalence of CKD in the United States.(More)
Chronic kidney disease1 (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. In the United States, there is a rising incidence and prevalence of kidney failure, with poor outcomes and high cost. The number of individuals with kidney failure treated by dialysis and transplantation exceeded 320 000 in 1998 and is expected to surpass 650 000 by 2010.1,2 There is an(More)
From the Division of Nephrology, Tufts– New England Medical Center, Boston (L.A.S., A.S.L.); the Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore (J.C.); and the Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland (T.G.). Address reprint requests to Dr. Stevens at Tufts– New England Medical Center, 750(More)
BACKGROUND Recently developed clinical practice guidelines and calibration of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) serum creatinine assay provide a basis for estimating the prevalence and distribution of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States using standardized criteria based on estimated glomerular filtration(More)
BACKGROUND Estimates of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that are based on serum creatinine are routinely used; however, they are imprecise, potentially leading to the overdiagnosis of chronic kidney disease. Cystatin C is an alternative filtration marker for estimating GFR. METHODS Using cross-sectional analyses, we developed estimating equations based(More)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem, with adverse outcomes of kidney failure, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and premature death. A simple definition and classification of kidney disease is necessary for international development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes(More)