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We have examined posttranslational regulation of clock proteins in mouse liver in vivo. The mouse PERIOD proteins (mPER1 and mPER2), CLOCK, and BMAL1 undergo robust circadian changes in phosphorylation. These proteins, the cryptochromes (mCRY1 and mCRY2), and casein kinase I epsilon (CKIepsilon) form multimeric complexes that are bound to DNA during(More)
In many seasonally breeding rodents, reproduction and metabolism are activated by long summer days (LD) and inhibited by short winter days (SD). After several months of SD, animals become refractory to this inhibitory photoperiod and spontaneously revert to LD-like physiology. The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) house the primary circadian oscillator in(More)
Seasonally breeding mammals use the annual change in the photoperiod cycle to drive rhythmic nocturnal melatonin signals from the pineal gland, providing a critical cue to time seasonal reproduction. Paradoxically, species resident at high latitudes achieve tight regulation of the temporal pattern of growth and reproduction despite the absence of(More)
Times of the ovulatory LH surge and characteristics of the rise in circulating progesterone concentrations after ovulation in red deer hinds were investigated in relation to each animal's dominance status. Observations were made during the 1992 (experiment 1) and 1993 (experiment 2) breeding seasons, while the same 12 hinds were held in a pen in the absence(More)
Seasonal synchronization based on day length (photoperiod) allows organisms to anticipate environmental change. Photoperiodic decoding relies on circadian clocks, but the underlying molecular pathways have remained elusive [1]. In mammals and birds, photoperiodic responses depend crucially on expression of thyrotrophin β subunit RNA (TSHβ) in the pars(More)
The intrinsic period of circadian clocks is their defining adaptive property. To identify the biochemical mechanisms whereby casein kinase1 (CK1) determines circadian period in mammals, we created mouse null and tau mutants of Ck1 epsilon. Circadian period lengthened in CK1epsilon-/-, whereas CK1epsilon(tau/tau) shortened circadian period of behavior in(More)
Seasonally breeding mammals such as sheep use photoperiod, encoded by the nocturnal secretion of the pineal hormone melatonin, as a critical cue to drive hormone rhythms and synchronize reproduction to the most optimal time of year. Melatonin acts directly on the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary, regulating expression of thyrotropin, which then relays(More)
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ligand activated transcription factor, serving to regulate both energy metabolism and immune functions. Factors that influence cellular sensitivity to glucocorticoids (GC) are therefore of great interest. The N-terminal of the GR contains numerous potential proline-directed phosphorylation sites, some of which can(More)
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