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BACKGROUND Structural studies of fixed cells have revealed that interphase chromosomes are highly organized into specific arrangements in the nucleus, and have led to a picture of the nucleus as a static structure with immobile chromosomes held in fixed positions, an impression apparently confirmed by recent photobleaching studies. Functional studies of(More)
BACKGROUND Precise control of sister chromatid separation is essential for the accurate transmission of genetic information. Sister chromatids must remain linked to each other from the time of DNA replication until the onset of chromosome segregation, when the linkage must be promptly dissolved. Recent studies suggest that the machinery that is responsible(More)
We report a new method for in situ localization of DNA sequences that allows excellent preservation of nuclear and chromosomal ultrastructure and direct, in vivo observations. 256 direct repeats of the lac operator were added to vector constructs used for transfection and served as a tag for labeling by lac repressor. This system was first characterized by(More)
BACKGROUND Mitosis is regulated by MPF (maturation promoting factor), the active form of Cdc2/28-cyclin B complexes. Increasing levels of cyclin B abundance and the loss of inhibitory phosphates from Cdc2/28 drives cells into mitosis, whereas cyclin B destruction inactivates MPF and drives cells out of mitosis. Cells with defective spindles are arrested in(More)
We have used light microscopy and serial thin-section electron microscopy to visualize intermediates of chromosome decondensation during G1 progression in synchronized CHO cells. In early G1, tightly coiled 100-130-nm "chromonema" fibers are visualized within partially decondensed chromatin masses. Progression from early to middle G1 is accompanied by a(More)
Increasing evidence suggests functional compartmentalization of interphase nuclei. This includes preferential interior localization of gene-rich and early replicating chromosome regions versus peripheral localization of gene-poor and late replicating chromosome regions , association of some active genes with nuclear speckles or transcription "factories",(More)
To investigate chromosome segregation in B. subtilis, we introduced tandem copies of the lactose operon operator into the chromosome near the replication origin or terminus. We then visualized the position of the operator cassettes with green fluorescent protein fused to the Lac1 repressor. In sporulating bacteria, which undergo asymmetric cell division,(More)
Recently we described a new method for in situ localization of specific DNA sequences, based on lac operator/repressor recognition (Robinett, C.C., A. Straight, G. Li, C. Willhelm, G. Sudlow, A. Murray, and A.S. Belmont. 1996. J. Cell Biol. 135:1685-1700). We have applied this methodology to visualize the cell cycle dynamics of an approximately 90 Mbp,(More)
We have used a combination of immunogold staining, optical sectioning light microscopy, intermediate voltage electron microscopy, and EM tomography to examine the distribution of lamin B over the nuclear envelope of CHO cells. Apparent inconsistencies between previously published light and electron microscopy studies of nuclear lamin staining were resolved.(More)
urrent models of mitotic chromosome structure are based largely on the examination of maximally condensed metaphase chromosomes. Here, we test these models by correlating the distribution of two scaffold components with the appearance of prophase chromosome folding intermediates. We confirm an axial distribution of topoisomerase II ␣ and the condensin(More)