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In this study, we developed a triplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR)-based method that detects and distinguishes between noroviruses belonging to genogroups I, II, and III and that targets the junction between the regions of open reading frame 1 (ORF1) and ORF2. This is the first assay to include all three genogroups and the first real-time(More)
A new laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) produced by Streptomyces cyaneus CECT 3335 in liquid media containing soya flour (20 g per liter) was purified to homogeneity. The physicochemical, catalytic, and spectral characteristics of this enzyme, as well as its suitability for biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulps, were assessed. The purified laccase had a molecular mass(More)
The suitability of culture supernatant from Streptomyces albus ATCC 3005 for use in the biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp was investigated. S. albus was found to grow on a minimal salts medium containing oat spelts xylan and yeast extract as the main carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Maximal extracellular xylanase and peroxidase production was(More)
Degradation of agricultural land and the resulting loss of soil biodiversity and productivity are of great concern. Land-use management practices can be used to ameliorate such degradation. The soil bacterial communities at three separate arable farms in eastern England, with different farm management practices, were investigated by using a polyphasic(More)
The composition of the active microbial (bacterial and fungal) soil community in an arable wheat field subjected to different management practices was examined at five times during a 1-year period. Field sections were fertilized either at good agricultural practice (GAP) levels or at reduced levels (0.5x GAP) and were inoculated with vesicular arbuscular(More)
AIMS To investigate the factors affecting benzene biodegradation and microbial community composition in a contaminated aquifer. METHODS AND RESULTS We identified the microbial community in groundwater samples from a benzene-contaminated aquifer situated below a petrochemical plant. Eleven out of twelve groundwater samples with in situ dissolved oxygen(More)
Microphytobenthic biofilms in estuaries, dominated by epipelic diatoms, are sites of high primary productivity. These diatoms exude large quantities of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) comprising polysaccharides and glycoproteins, providing a substantial pool of organic carbon available to heterotrophs within the sediment. In this study, sediment(More)
Oil refineries are facing many challenges, including heavier crude oils, increased fuel quality standards, and a need to reduce air pollution emissions. Global society is stepping on the road to zero-sulfur fuel, with only differences in the starting point of sulfur level and rate reduction of sulfur content between different countries. Hydrodesulfurization(More)
Aquaporins (AQPs) or water channels render the lipid bilayer of cell membranes permeable to water. The numerous AQP subtypes present in any given species, the transport properties of each subtype and the variety of methods of their regulation allows different cell types to be transiently or permanently permeable to water or other solutes that AQPs are(More)
A sandstone aquifer beneath a petrochemicals plant (SIReN site, UK) is heterogeneously contaminated with benzene and oxygen-depleted. Despite low redox potentials in three of the most contaminated groundwaters (benzene concentrations from 17.8 to 294 mg L(-1)), we observed aerobic benzene degradation in microcosms, indicating the presence in situ of a(More)