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BACKGROUND Pelvis and trunk motions during baseball pitching are associated with ball velocity. Thus, limits in hip flexibility may adversely affect pitching biomechanics and the ability to generate ball velocity. HYPOTHESES Professional baseball pitchers will have less passive range of motion in the nondominant hip and the measured ranges of motion of(More)
Stressful interpersonal experiences can be difficult to prepare for. Virtual humans may be leveraged to allow learners to safely gain exposure to stressful interpersonal experiences. In this paper we present a between-subjects study exploring how the presence of a virtual human affected learners while practicing a stressful interpersonal experience.(More)
Researchers have created mixed-reality humans (MRHs) and applied them to critical team training. MRHs are embodied conversational agents with virtual and physical components that inhabit the user's space. In this research, MRHs role-played members of an operating-room team. Studies examined how MRH components affected social presence (the user's sense of(More)
The concepts of immersion and presence focus on the environment in a virtual environment. We instead focus on embodied conversational agents (ECAs). ECAs occupy the virtual environment as interactive partners. We propose that the ECA analogues of immersion and presence are physicality and social presence. We performed a study to determine the effect of an(More)
In a group setting, it is possible for attributes of one group member to indirectly affect how other group members are perceived. In this paper, we explore whether one group member's agency (e.g. if they are real or virtual) can indirectly affect behavior with other group members. We also consider whether variations in the agency of a group member directly(More)
In this paper we present a study exploring whether the physical presence of another human changes how people perceive and behave with virtual teammates. We conducted a study (n = 69) in which nurses worked with a simulated health care team to prepare a patient for surgery. The agency of participants' teammates was varied between conditions; participants(More)