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The unanticipated involvement of several intraflagellar transport proteins in the mammalian Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has hinted at a functional connection between cilia and Hh signal transduction. Here we show that mammalian Smoothened (Smo), a seven-transmembrane protein essential for Hh signalling, is expressed on the primary cilium. This ciliary expression(More)
BACKGROUND We evaluated capecitabine (an oral fluoropyrimidine) and oxaliplatin (a platinum compound) as alternatives to infused fluorouracil and cisplatin, respectively, for untreated advanced esophagogastric cancer. METHODS In a two-by-two design, we randomly assigned 1002 patients to receive triplet therapy with epirubicin and cisplatin plus either(More)
OBJECTIVE The purposes of this study were to determine whether the pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of hepatic metastatic lesions from colorectal cancer are predictive of response to chemotherapy and to compare the ADCs of metastatic lesions before and after chemotherapy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Twenty patients with potentially operable(More)
Understanding the genetic architecture of evolutionary change remains a long-standing goal in biology. In vertebrates, skeletal evolution has contributed greatly to adaptation in body form and function in response to changing ecological variables like diet and predation. Here we use genome-wide linkage mapping in threespine stickleback fish to investigate(More)
BACKGROUND A mass may persist in the para-aortic region after patients undergo chemotherapy for metastatic, nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis (NSGCT). Retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy removes the mass, which may contain residual active malignancy, and allows histologic assessment of the effectiveness of the chemotherapy. Whereas some have favored(More)
PURPOSE To establish guidelines for normal retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph node size at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by correlation with computed tomographic (CT) and lymphangiographic (LAG) data. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twelve patients previously studied with pre- and post-LAG CT to determine normal pelvic lymph node size [ 1 ] were examined with MRI.(More)
OBJECTIVES Outcome data from a prospective study of active surveillance of localised prostate cancer were analysed to identify factors, present at the time of diagnosis, that predict subsequent radical treatment. METHODS Eligible patients had clinical stage T1-T2a, N0-Nx, M0-Mx adenocarcinoma of the prostate with serum PSA<15 ng/ml, Gleason score <or= 7,(More)
BACKGROUND Expression of intrinsic markers of tumour hypoxia and angiogenesis are important predictors of radiotherapeutic, and possibly surgical, outcome in several cancers. Extent of tumour hypoxia in localised prostate cancer is comparable to that in other cancers, but few data exist on the association of extent of tumour hypoxia with treatment outcome.(More)
PURPOSE To compare protracted venous infusion (PVI) fluorouracil (5-FU) with PVI 5-FU plus mitomycin (MMC) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer in a multicenter, prospectively randomized study. PATIENTS AND METHODS Two hundred eight patients were randomized to PVI 5-FU (300 mg/m(2)/d for a maximum of 24 weeks) or PVI 5-FU plus MMC (7 mg/m(2) every(More)
E2F transcription factors, including E2F3, directly modulate expression of EZH2. Recently, overexpression of the EZH2 gene has been implicated in the development of human prostate cancer. In tissue microrarray studies we now show that expression of high levels of nuclear E2F3 occurs in a high proportion (98/147, 67%) of human prostate cancers, but is a rare(More)