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Development of the body plan is controlled by large networks of regulatory genes. A gene regulatory network that controls the specification of endoderm and mesoderm in the sea urchin embryo is summarized here. The network was derived from large-scale perturbation analyses, in combination with computational methodologies, genomic data, cis-regulatory(More)
Founder cells for most early lineages of the sea urchin embryo are probably specified through inductive intercellular interactions. It is shown here that a complete respecification of cell fate occurs when 16-cell stage micromeres from the vegetal pole of a donor embryo are implanted into the animal pole of an intact recipient embryo. Animal pole cells(More)
We present the current form of a provisional DNA sequence-based regulatory gene network that explains in outline how endomesodermal specification in the sea urchin embryo is controlled. The model of the network is in a continuous process of revision and growth as new genes are added and new experimental results become available; see(More)
We have used whole mount in situ hybridization to analyze the pattern of expression of the gene Endo 16 in S. purpuratus embryos. The mRNA is first detectable at 18 h post-fertilization in the cytoplasm of blastomeres derived from the Veg2 6th cleavage tier. The number of Endo 16 positive cells increases gradually through the beginning of gastrulation, and(More)
Vegetal plate specification was assessed in S. purpuratus embryos after micromere deletions at the 4th, 5th and 6th cleavages, by assaying expression of the early vegetal plate marker Endo 16, using whole-mount in situ hybridization. After 4th cleavage micromere deletions, the embryos typically displayed weak Endo16 expression in relatively few cells of the(More)
The glial cells missing regulatory gene of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (spgcm) was proposed earlier to be the genomic target of Delta/Notch (D/N) signaling required for specification of the mesodermal precursors of pigment cells. Here, we show that microinjection of a spgcm antisense morpholino oligonucleotide results in larvae without pigment cells.(More)
The four small micromeres of the sea urchin embryo contribute only to the coelomic sacs, which produce major components of the adult body plan during postembryonic development. To test the proposition that the small micromeres are the definitive primordial germ cell lineage of the sea urchin, we deleted their 4th cleavage parents, and raised the deleted(More)
This study concerns the organization of sites of specific DNA/protein interaction within the regulatory domain of the Endo16 gene of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Earlier work had displayed a complex pattern of expression of this gene during embryogenesis. Endo16 transcripts are confined to the definitive vegetal plate in blastula stage embryos; at(More)
Specification of the non-skeletogenic mesoderm (NSM) in sea urchin embryos depends on Delta signaling. Signal reception leads to expression of regulatory genes that later contribute to the aboral NSM regulatory state. In oral NSM, this is replaced by a distinct oral regulatory state in consequence of Nodal signaling. Through regulome wide analysis we(More)
An early set of blastomere specifications occurs during cleavage in the sea urchin embryo, the result of both conditional and autonomous processes, as proposed in the model for this embryo set forth in 1989. Recent experimental results have greatly illuminated the mechanisms of specification in some early embryonic territories, though others remain obscure.(More)