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Most of the world's tuberculosis cases occur in low-income and middle-income countries, where sputum microscopy with a conventional light microscope is the primary method for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. A major shortcoming of conventional microscopy is its relatively low sensitivity compared with culture, especially in patients co-infected with HIV.(More)
In low-income and middle-income countries, direct (unconcentrated) sputum smear microscopy is the primary method for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. The method is fast, inexpensive, and specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in high incidence areas. The main limitations of direct microscopy are its relatively low sensitivity, especially in individuals(More)
BACKGROUND Serological (antibody detection) tests for tuberculosis (TB) are widely used in developing countries. As part of a World Health Organization policy process, we performed an updated systematic review to assess the diagnostic accuracy of commercial serological tests for pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB with a focus on the relevance of these tests in(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the therapeutic outcomes after deep lamellar keratoplasty (DLK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in patients with keratoconus. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. PARTICIPANTS We reviewed the clinical notes of 47 patients diagnosed clinically with keratoconus who had received DLK (26 eyes of 25 patients) or PK (25 eyes of 22(More)
Current international tuberculosis (TB) guidelines recommend the microscopic examination of three sputum specimens for acid-fast bacilli in the evaluation of persons suspected of having pulmonary TB. We conducted a systematic review of studies that quantified the diagnostic yield of each of three sputum specimens. By searching multiple databases and(More)
Melioidosis has not been recognized previously in Laos, but within months of starting a prospective study of community acquired septicemia in Vientiane, 2 patients with melioidosis were identified. One was a previously healthy, 44-year-old female rice farmer who presented with supraclavicular lymphadenitis and the other was a 74-year-old man with diabetes(More)
The aim of this work is to present the development of a hybrid Brain-Computer Interface (hBCI) which combines existing input devices with a BCI. Thereby, the BCI should be available if the user wishes to extend the types of inputs available to an assistive technology system, but the user can also choose not to use the BCI at all; the BCI is active in the(More)
The area of multimodal interaction has expanded rapidly. However, the implementation of multimodal systems still remains a difficult task. Addressing this problem, we describe the OpenInterface (OI) framework, a component-based tool for rapidly developing multimodal input interfaces. The OI underlying conceptual component model includes both generic and(More)
Tests that detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in clinical specimens could provide rapid direct evidence of active disease. We performed a systematic review to assess the diagnostic accuracy of antigen detection tests for active tuberculosis (TB) according to standard methods and summarized test performance using bivariate random effects(More)