Andrew Ramsay

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The area of multimodal interaction has expanded rapidly. However, the implementation of multimodal systems still remains a difficult task. Addressing this problem, we describe the OpenInterface (OI) framework, a component-based tool for rapidly developing multimodal input interfaces. The OI underlying conceptual component model includes both generic and(More)
Most of the world's tuberculosis cases occur in low-income and middle-income countries, where sputum microscopy with a conventional light microscope is the primary method for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. A major shortcoming of conventional microscopy is its relatively low sensitivity compared with culture, especially in patients co-infected with HIV.(More)
In low-income and middle-income countries, direct (unconcentrated) sputum smear microscopy is the primary method for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. The method is fast, inexpensive, and specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in high incidence areas. The main limitations of direct microscopy are its relatively low sensitivity, especially in individuals(More)
Serological antibody detection tests for tuberculosis may offer the potential to improve diagnosis. Recent meta-analyses have shown that commercially available tests have variable accuracies and a limited clinical role. We reviewed the immunodiagnostic potential of antigens evaluated in research laboratories (in-house) for the serodiagnosis of pulmonary(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the therapeutic outcomes after deep lamellar keratoplasty (DLK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in patients with keratoconus. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. PARTICIPANTS We reviewed the clinical notes of 47 patients diagnosed clinically with keratoconus who had received DLK (26 eyes of 25 patients) or PK (25 eyes of 22(More)
The fluoroquinolones are promising new antituberculous agents. A randomized controlled trial of 200 adult patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was conducted in Tanzania. Patients received either a trial regimen (HRC) consisting of isoniazid (300 mg), rifampin (600 mg), and ciprofloxacin (750 mg) or a control regimen (HRZE) consisting(More)
Current international tuberculosis (TB) guidelines recommend the microscopic examination of three sputum specimens for acid-fast bacilli in the evaluation of persons suspected of having pulmonary TB. We conducted a systematic review of studies that quantified the diagnostic yield of each of three sputum specimens. By searching multiple databases and(More)
We assessed nutritional status in 200 adult Tanzanian patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis before, during, and after 6 months of tuberculosis treatment; 148 patients (74%) were successfully followed for 12 months. Marked nutritional impairment was present on admission: 77% of males and 58% of females had a body mass index (BMI) below 18.5;(More)
SETTING All non-private hospitals in Malawi that registered TB cases in 2001, during which there was a bus service for transporting sputum specimens to the Central Reference Laboratory (CRL) for mycobacterial culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST). OBJECTIVES To determine the performance of the system of collecting and processing sputum specimens(More)
BACKGROUND Serological (antibody detection) tests for tuberculosis (TB) are widely used in developing countries. As part of a World Health Organization policy process, we performed an updated systematic review to assess the diagnostic accuracy of commercial serological tests for pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB with a focus on the relevance of these tests in(More)