Learn More
BACKGROUND The integrase inhibitor elvitegravir (EVG) has been co-formulated with the CYP3A4 inhibitor cobicistat (COBI), emtricitabine (FTC), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in a single tablet given once daily. We compared the efficacy and safety of EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF with standard of care-co-formulated efavirenz (EFV)/FTC/TDF-as initial treatment(More)
Background. It is important, for drug-resistance surveillance, to identify human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains that have undergone antiretroviral drug selection.Methods. We compared the prevalence of protease and reverse-transcriptase (RT) mutations in HIV-1 sequences from persons with and without previous treatment with protease inhibitors(More)
OBJECTIVE the World Health Organization (WHO) recently changed its first-line antiretroviral treatment guidelines in resource-limited settings. The cost-effectiveness of the new guidelines is unknown. DESIGN comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness analysis using a model of HIV disease progression and treatment. METHODS using a simulation of HIV(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between adherence, viral suppression and antiretroviral resistance in HIV-infected homeless and marginally housed people on protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. DESIGN AND SETTING A cross-sectional analysis of subjects in an observational prospective cohort systematically sampled from free meal lines, homeless shelters(More)
BACKGROUND Optimal timing of ART initiation for individuals presenting with AIDS-related OIs has not been defined. METHODS AND FINDINGS A5164 was a randomized strategy trial of "early ART"--given within 14 days of starting acute OI treatment versus "deferred ART"--given after acute OI treatment is completed. Randomization was stratified by presenting OI(More)
We examined consecutive protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected individuals, to distinguish changes resulting from sequence evolution due to possible superinfection. Between July 1997 and December 2001, >/=2 PR and RT samples from 718 persons were sequenced at Stanford University(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the association of inflammatory markers, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein (CRP), with 5-year mortality risk. METHODS Vital status was ascertained in 922 HIV-infected participants from the Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV infection. Multivariable logistic regression estimated odds ratios after adjustment for(More)
Although many human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons are treated with multiple protease inhibitors in combination or in succession, mutation patterns of protease isolates from these persons have not been characterized. We collected and analyzed 2,244 subtype B HIV-1 isolates from 1,919 persons with different protease inhibitor(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations by their association with extent of nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI) therapy. To identify mutational clusters in RT sequences from persons receiving multiple NRTI. DESIGN A total of 1210 RT sequences from persons with known antiretroviral therapy were analyzed: 641 new sequences were performed(More)