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BACKGROUND Optimal timing of ART initiation for individuals presenting with AIDS-related OIs has not been defined. METHODS AND FINDINGS A5164 was a randomized strategy trial of "early ART"--given within 14 days of starting acute OI treatment versus "deferred ART"--given after acute OI treatment is completed. Randomization was stratified by presenting OI(More)
The Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM), initiated in 2000, investigates the prevalence and correlates of changes in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men and women compared with a population-based group of control men and women. Between June 2000 and(More)
BACKGROUND The integrase inhibitor elvitegravir (EVG) has been co-formulated with the CYP3A4 inhibitor cobicistat (COBI), emtricitabine (FTC), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in a single tablet given once daily. We compared the efficacy and safety of EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF with standard of care-co-formulated efavirenz (EFV)/FTC/TDF-as initial treatment(More)
BACKGROUND Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is reported widely in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, few studies are prospective, and no study has evaluated the impact of the timing of ART when allocated randomly during an acute opportunistic infection (OI). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS A5164 randomized 282(More)
BACKGROUND Tests for resistance to HIV drugs are available for clinical use; however, their predictive value has not been fully assessed. OBJECTIVES To determine HIV-1 genotypic predictors of a virologic response to saquinavir-ritonavir therapy in patients in whom at least one previous protease inhibitor-containing regimen had failed and to compare the(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the novel tenofovir prodrug, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), as part of a single-tablet regimen (STR) for the initial treatment of HIV-1 infection. DESIGN Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, active-controlled study. METHODS Antiretroviral naive adults with HIV-1 RNA ≥5000 copies(More)
INTRODUCTION The HIV pandemic disproportionately impacts young women. Worldwide, young women aged 15-24 are infected with HIV at rates twice that of young men, and young women alone account for nearly a quarter of all new HIV infections. The incommensurate HIV incidence in young - often poor - women underscores how social and economic inequalities shape the(More)
BACKGROUND Whether HIV viremia, particularly at low levels is associated with inflammation, increased coagulation, and all-cause mortality is unclear. METHODS The associations of HIV RNA level with C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin (IL)-6 and mortality were evaluated in 1116 HIV-infected participants from the Study of Fat Redistribution(More)
BACKGROUND This study was performed to investigate the concordance between commonly used human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance interpretation systems for didanosine (ddI) and their ability to predict responses at weeks 8 and 24. METHODS The study included drug-experienced HIV-infected patients who had viral loads >500 copies/mL and(More)
BACKGROUND Mortality within the first 6 months after initiating antiretroviral therapy is common in resource-limited settings and is often due to tuberculosis in patients with advanced HIV disease. Isoniazid preventive therapy is recommended in HIV-positive adults, but subclinical tuberculosis can be difficult to diagnose. We aimed to assess whether(More)