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Loss of tuberin, the product of TSC2 gene, increases mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, promoting cell growth and tumor development. However, in cells expressing tuberin, it is not known how repression of mTOR signaling is relieved to activate this pathway in response to growth factors and how hamartin participates in this process. We show that(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder that occurs through the loss of heterozygosity of either TSC1 or TSC2, which encode Hamartin or Tuberin, respectively. Tuberin and Hamartin form a tumor suppressor heterodimer that inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) nutrient signaling input, but how this occurs is unclear. (More)
Reactive intermediates such as reactive nitrogen species play essential roles in the cell as signaling molecules but, in excess, constitute a major source of cellular damage. We found that nitrosative stress induced by steady-state nitric oxide (NO) caused rapid activation of an ATM damage-response pathway leading to downstream signaling by this stress(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is the key signaling hub that regulates cellular protein homeostasis, growth, and proliferation in health and disease. As a prerequisite for activation of mTORC1 by hormones and mitogens, there first has to be an available pool of intracellular amino acids. Arginine, an amino acid essential during(More)
cAMP and mTOR signalling pathways control a number of critical cellular processes including metabolism, protein synthesis, proliferation and cell survival and therefore understanding the signalling events which integrate these two signalling pathways is of particular interest. In this study, we show that the pharmacological elevation of [cAMP](i) in mouse(More)
Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder where patients are predisposed to kidney cancer, lung and kidney cysts and benign skin tumors. BHD is caused by heterozygous mutations affecting folliculin (FLCN), a conserved protein that is considered a tumor suppressor. Previous research has uncovered multiple roles for FLCN in cellular(More)
Recent clinical trials using rapalogues in tuberous sclerosis complex show regression in volume of typically vascularised tumours including angiomyolipomas and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. By blocking mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling, rapalogue efficacy is likely to occur, in part, through suppression of(More)
The cellular function of folliculin (FLCN) is a mystery that still needs to be solved. It is known that mutation of FLCN can predispose Birt–Hogg–Dubé (BHD) patient’s to renal cell carcinoma , renal and lung cysts, as well as skin fibrofolliculomas. FLCN has been classed as a tumour suppressor, but it is probable that cystic and the skin manifestations do(More)
Understanding the development and function of the nervous system is one of the foremost aims of current biomedical research. The nervous system is generated during a relatively short period of intense neurogenesis that is orchestrated by a number of key molecular signalling pathways. Even subtle defects in the activity of these molecules can have serious(More)