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We measured the effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 on atmospheric nitrogen (N2) fixation in the tree species Alnus glutinosa growing in monoculture or in mixture with the non-N2-fixing tree species Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica. We addressed the hypotheses that (1) N2 fixation in A. glutinosa will increase in response to increased atmospheric CO2(More)
Cryogenic air separation technology has been successfully employed for many years to supply oxygen for the gasification of a wide range of hydrocarbon feedstocks to generate synthesis gas for the production of fuels, chemicals and other valuable products. Examples include the conversion of liquid and solid refinery waste streams into hydrogen for use within(More)
Hydrogen etching of 6H-and 4H-SiC(0001) surfaces is studied. The as-polished substrates contain a large number of scratches arising from the polishing process which are eliminated by hydrogen etching. Etching is carried out in a flow of hydrogen gas at atmospheric pressure and temperatures around 1600-1700 C attained on a tantalum strip heater. Post-etching(More)
Reconstructions of GaN͑0001͒ and ͑0001 ¯ ͒ surfaces are studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, by electron diffraction, by Auger electron spectroscopy, and using first-principles theory. Attention is focused on Ga-rich reconstructions for each surface, which are found to have a metallic character involving significant overlap between Ga(More)
Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative(More)
Anthropogenic activity has increased the level of atmospheric CO2, which is driving an increase of global temperatures and associated changes in precipitation patterns. At Northern latitudes, one of the likely consequences of global warming is increased precipitation and air humidity. In this work, the effects of both elevated atmospheric CO2 and increased(More)
Rising atmospheric [CO2 ], ca , is expected to affect stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange of woody plants, thus influencing energy fluxes as well as carbon (C), water, and nutrient cycling of forests. Researchers have proposed various strategies for stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange that include maintaining a constant leaf internal [CO2 ], ci ,(More)
Afforestation changes soil chemical properties over several decades. In contrast, microbial community structure can be shifted within the first decade and so, the direct effects of tree species can be revealed. The aim of this study was to determine the alteration of soil microbial community composition 10 years after afforestation by trees with contrasting(More)
Soil respiration (SR) is a major component of the global carbon cycle and plays a fundamental role in ecosystem feedback to climate change. Empirical modelling is an essential tool for predicting ecosystem responses to environmental change, and also provides important data for calibrating and corroborating process-based models. In this study, we evaluated(More)
Understanding the response of soil respiration to climate variability is critical to formulate realistic predictions of future carbon (C) fluxes under different climate change scenarios. There is growing evidence that the influence of long-term climate variability in C fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems is modulated by adjustments in the(More)