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IFN-beta effectively controls clinical exacerbations and magnetic resonance imaging activity in most multiple sclerosis patients. However, its mechanism of action has not been yet fully elucidated. In this study we used DNA microarrays to analyze the longitudinal transcriptional profile of blood cells within a week of IFN-beta administration. Using(More)
We studied 38 patients with Lyme meningitis, a newly recognized spirochetal infection. The patients characteristically had intermittent attacks of severe headache, mild meningismus, and a predominantly lymphocytic pleocytosis. In addition to meningitis, 11 patients experienced subtle encephalitic signs, 19 had cranial neuritis, most commonly unilateral or(More)
We studied six patients with central nervous system manifestations of Lyme disease. Weeks to years after the initial infection, behavioral changes, ataxia, and/or weakness in bulbar or peripheral muscles developed. Four of the six patients had a lymphocytic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid, and two of them had magnetic resonance imaging scans(More)
The identification of factors that can affect the efficacy of immunomodulatory drugs in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is important. For the available interferon-beta products, neutralising antibodies (NAb) have been shown to affect treatment efficacy. In June, 2009, a panel of experts in MS and NAbs to interferon-beta therapy convened in(More)
Antibody titers against myelin constituents in sera and CSF of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were examined by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Anti-GM4 and anti-galactocerebroside antibody titers were significantly elevated in the CSF of MS patients, but not anti-GM1 and anti-myelin basic protein antibodies. In sera of MS patients, the titers of(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon beta (IFNbeta) administered subcutaneously is immunogenic in some patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and leads to the development of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Considerable evidence has accumulated that NAbs diminish or abolish IFNbeta bioactivity, but there is less evidence that NAbs impact clinical efficacy of the drug. (More)
Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) is challenging: disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) must both limit unwanted immune responses associated with disease initiation and propagation (as T and B lymphocytes are critical cellular mediators in the pathophysiology of relapsing MS), and also have minimal adverse impact on normal protective immune responses. In(More)
Herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) establish latent infection in dorsal root ganglia for the entire life of the host. From this reservoir they can reactivate to cause human morbidity and mortality. Although the viruses vary in the clinical disorders they cause and in their molecular structure, they share(More)
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative organism of Lyme borreliosis, is a heterogeneous group of spirochetes, consisting of at least three pathogenic species. To test the hypothesis that the genetic heterogeneity is the reason for the clinical differences, we investigated whether the experimental disease induced by European isolates is different(More)