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We studied 38 patients with Lyme meningitis, a newly recognized spirochetal infection. The patients characteristically had intermittent attacks of severe headache, mild meningismus, and a predominantly lymphocytic pleocytosis. In addition to meningitis, 11 patients experienced subtle encephalitic signs, 19 had cranial neuritis, most commonly unilateral or(More)
Lyme disease is a multisystemic illness caused by a tick-borne spirochete. Once considered unique to the Connecticut coastline, thousands of cases are now documented throughout the United States, northern Europe, and Australia. Unilateral and bilateral facial paralysis may occur in up to 11% of patients with Lyme disease. This paper reviews the clinical(More)
IFN-beta effectively controls clinical exacerbations and magnetic resonance imaging activity in most multiple sclerosis patients. However, its mechanism of action has not been yet fully elucidated. In this study we used DNA microarrays to analyze the longitudinal transcriptional profile of blood cells within a week of IFN-beta administration. Using(More)
We studied six patients with central nervous system manifestations of Lyme disease. Weeks to years after the initial infection, behavioral changes, ataxia, and/or weakness in bulbar or peripheral muscles developed. Four of the six patients had a lymphocytic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid, and two of them had magnetic resonance imaging scans(More)
The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, is a highly neurotropic organism that not only can produce symptomatic neurologic disease but also can exist dormant within the central nervous system (CNS) for long periods. Two distinct types of neuroborreliosis occur at different stages of Lyme disease. Second-stage Lyme meningitis resembles(More)
Neurological symptoms are common manifestations of Lyme disease; however, the paucibacillary nature of the spirochete in this environment has precluded a molecular analysis of the spirochete in the CNS. We have now adapted differential expression analysis by using a custom-amplified library (DECAL) in conjunction with Borrelia burgdorferi whole-genome and(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon-beta (IFNbeta) has proven to be an important advance in the therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS), but optimal markers for bioactivity have not been identified. To accurately measure bioactivity in MS patients treated with IFNbeta, we developed and tested a real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assay for gene expression of MxA, an(More)
Herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) establish latent infection in dorsal root ganglia for the entire life of the host. From this reservoir they can reactivate to cause human morbidity and mortality. Although the viruses vary in the clinical disorders they cause and in their molecular structure, they share(More)
BACKGROUND There are no published MRI studies comparing interferon beta 1b (IFNbeta-1b) and glatiramer acetate (GA) for treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of IFNbeta-1b and GA for suppression of MS disease activity as evidenced on frequent brain MRI. METHODS A total of 75 patients with relapsing-remitting(More)
Lyme borreliosis is caused by infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonhuman primates inoculated with the N40 strain of B. burgdorferi develop infection of multiple tissues, including the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous system. In immunocompetent nonhuman primates, spirochetes are present in low numbers in tissues. For this reason, it has(More)