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IFN-beta effectively controls clinical exacerbations and magnetic resonance imaging activity in most multiple sclerosis patients. However, its mechanism of action has not been yet fully elucidated. In this study we used DNA microarrays to analyze the longitudinal transcriptional profile of blood cells within a week of IFN-beta administration. Using(More)
We studied 38 patients with Lyme meningitis, a newly recognized spirochetal infection. The patients characteristically had intermittent attacks of severe headache, mild meningismus, and a predominantly lymphocytic pleocytosis. In addition to meningitis, 11 patients experienced subtle encephalitic signs, 19 had cranial neuritis, most commonly unilateral or(More)
We studied six patients with central nervous system manifestations of Lyme disease. Weeks to years after the initial infection, behavioral changes, ataxia, and/or weakness in bulbar or peripheral muscles developed. Four of the six patients had a lymphocytic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid, and two of them had magnetic resonance imaging scans(More)
The identification of factors that can affect the efficacy of immunomodulatory drugs in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is important. For the available interferon-beta products, neutralising antibodies (NAb) have been shown to affect treatment efficacy. In June, 2009, a panel of experts in MS and NAbs to interferon-beta therapy convened in(More)
Antibody titers against myelin constituents in sera and CSF of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were examined by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Anti-GM4 and anti-galactocerebroside antibody titers were significantly elevated in the CSF of MS patients, but not anti-GM1 and anti-myelin basic protein antibodies. In sera of MS patients, the titers of(More)
BACKGROUND There are no published MRI studies comparing interferon beta 1b (IFNbeta-1b) and glatiramer acetate (GA) for treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of IFNbeta-1b and GA for suppression of MS disease activity as evidenced on frequent brain MRI. METHODS A total of 75 patients with relapsing-remitting(More)
Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), the neurological manifestation of systemic infection with the complex spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi, can pose a challenge for practising neurologists. This Review is a summary of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and therapy, as well as of recent advances in our understanding of LNB. Many new insights have been gained through(More)
Herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) establish latent infection in dorsal root ganglia for the entire life of the host. From this reservoir they can reactivate to cause human morbidity and mortality. Although the viruses vary in the clinical disorders they cause and in their molecular structure, they share(More)
Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) is challenging: disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) must both limit unwanted immune responses associated with disease initiation and propagation (as T and B lymphocytes are critical cellular mediators in the pathophysiology of relapsing MS), and also have minimal adverse impact on normal protective immune responses. In(More)