Andrew R. Leach

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Prediction of small molecule binding modes to macromolecules of known three-dimensional structure is a problem of paramount importance in rational drug design (the "docking" problem). We report the development and validation of the program GOLD (Genetic Optimisation for Ligand Docking). GOLD is an automated ligand docking program that uses a genetic(More)
We describe an algorithm which enables us to search the conformational space of the side chains of a protein to identify the global minimum energy combination of side chain conformations as well as all other conformations within a specified energy cutoff of the global energy minimum. The program is used to explore the side chain conformational energy(More)
Using a simple model of ligand-receptor interactions, the interactions between ligands and receptors of varying complexities are studied and the probabilities of binding calculated. It is observed that as the systems become more complex the chance of observing a useful interaction for a randomly chosen ligand falls dramatically. The implications of this for(More)
An algorithm is described that explores the conformational degrees of freedom of the amino acid side-chains and of the ligand when docking a putative ligand into a receptor site. For a given orientation of the ligand relative to the protein, the method can find the lowest energy combination of amino acid side-chains and ligand conformations as well as all(More)
The pharmaceutical industry remains under huge pressure to address the high attrition rates in drug development. Attempts to reduce the number of efficacy- and safety-related failures by analysing possible links to the physicochemical properties of small-molecule drug candidates have been inconclusive because of the limited size of data sets from individual(More)
The linear interaction energy (LIE) method has been applied to the calculation of the binding free energies of 15 inhibitors of the enzyme neuraminidase. This is a particularly challenging system for this methodology since the protein conformation and the number of tightly bound water molecules in the active site are known to change for different(More)
Three commercially available pharmacophore generation programs, Catalyst/HipHop, DISCO and GASP, were compared on their ability to generate known pharmacophores deduced from protein-ligand complexes extracted from the Protein Data Bank. Five different protein families were included Thrombin, Cyclin Dependent Kinase 2, Dihydrofolate Reductase, HIV Reverse(More)
ChEMBL is an open large-scale bioactivity database (, previously described in the 2012 and 2014 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issues. Since then, alongside the continued extraction of data from the medicinal chemistry literature, new sources of bioactivity data have also been added to the database. These include: deposited(More)