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The cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a frequent contaminant of freshwaters throughout the world, including those that are sources of drinking water. The first cases of human poisoning attributed to this toxin occurred from a treated drinking water supply in Queensland, Australia, in 1979. The toxin causes extensive damage to the liver,(More)
The toxicology of the cyanobacterial alkaloid cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis, appears complex and is not well understood. In exposed mice the liver is the main target for the toxic effects of CYN. In this study primary mouse hepatocyte cultures were used to investigate the mechanisms involved in CYN toxicity. The results(More)
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin found in drinking-water sources world wide. It was the likely cause of human poisonings in Australia and possibly Brazil. Although CYN itself is a potent protein synthesis inhibitor, its acute toxicity appears to be mediated by cytochrome p-450 (CYP450)-generated metabolites. CYN also induces genotoxic(More)
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a cyanotoxin produced by certain freshwater cyanobacteria, causes human intoxications and animal mortalities. CYN is a potent inhibitor of protein- and glutathione-synthesis. Preliminary evidence for in vivo tumor initiation has been found in mice but the mechanism remains unclear. Several in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate(More)
Microcystis aeruginosa produces toxic cyclic peptides called microcystins, potent hepatotoxins that have been implicated in tumor promotion in skin and liver. The model used in this investigation was the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt focus (ACF) in the male C57Bl/6J mouse colon. Three intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 5 mg/kg AOM were(More)
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis produced by a number of cyanobacterial species, the most common being Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. CYN contains a uracil moiety attached to a sulphated guanidino moiety, suggesting that it may have carcinogenic activity. This report describes the use of the WIL2-NS lymphoblastoid(More)
The toxic alkaloid cylindrospermopsin is produced by a range of cyanobacterial species worldwide. It was first identified in the species Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii from tropical waters, and has since been isolated from four other genera in locations ranging from Israel to Japan. High concentrations of the organisms and toxin have been identified in(More)
In Australia, the tropical/subtropical cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii forms substantial blooms in some drinking water supply reservoirs, rivers and recreational water bodies during the warmer months of the year. This paper describes the isolation, culture and toxicity characterisation of Cylindrospermopsis from a water bloom in a small lake(More)
New reports indicate that the toxic alkaloid cylindrospermopsin occurs in cyanobacteria in Israel, Florida, South America, and Australia in drinking water sources. This toxin is now recognised as a potential threat to human health. Furthermore, we have recently demonstrated the mutagenicity of cylindrospermopsin in vitro in a human lymphoblastoid cell-line.(More)
The blue-green algal toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) occurs in public water supplies. CYN was hepatotoxic when administered orally to mice, and cytotoxic and genotoxic to human cell lines. To determine the effects of CYN on primary human IVF-derived granulosa cells, 0-1 microg/ml CYN was added to cells for 2, 4 or 6h+/-hCG (n=6), or for 24, 48 and 72 h(More)