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Most homeodomains are unique within a genome, yet many are highly conserved across vast evolutionary distances, implying strong selection on their precise DNA-binding specificities. We determined the binding preferences of the majority (168) of mouse homeodomains to all possible 8-base sequences, revealing rich and complex patterns of sequence specificity(More)
Circadian clocks provide an adaptive advantage by allowing organisms to anticipate daily and seasonal environmental changes [1, 2]. Eukaryotic oscillators rely on complex hierarchical networks composed of transcriptional and posttranslational regulatory circuits [3]. In Arabidopsis, current representations of the circadian clock consist of three or four(More)
Members of the large ETS family of transcription factors (TFs) have highly similar DNA-binding domains (DBDs)-yet they have diverse functions and activities in physiology and oncogenesis. Some differences in DNA-binding preferences within this family have been described, but they have not been analysed systematically, and their contributions to targeting(More)
MOTIVATION Recognition of specific DNA sequences is a central mechanism by which transcription factors (TFs) control gene expression. Many TF-binding preferences, however, are unknown or poorly characterized, in part due to the difficulty associated with determining their specificity experimentally, and an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms(More)
At discrete points in development, transient signals are transformed into long-lasting cell fates. For example, the asymmetric identities of two Caenorhabditis elegans olfactory neurons called AWC(ON) and AWC(OFF) are specified by an embryonic signaling pathway, but maintained throughout the life of an animal. Here we show that the DNA-binding protein NSY-7(More)
Extreme novelties in the shape and size of paired fins are exemplified by extinct and extant cartilaginous and bony fishes. Pectoral fins of skates and rays, such as the little skate (Batoid, Leucoraja erinacea), show a strikingly unique morphology where the pectoral fin extends anteriorly to ultimately fuse with the head. This results in a morphology that(More)
Classifying proteins into subgroups with similar molecular function on the basis of sequence is an important step in deriving reliable functional annotations computationally. So far, however, available classification procedures have been evaluated against protein subgroups that are defined by experts using mainly qualitative descriptions of molecular(More)
To connect human biology to fish biomedical models, we sequenced the genome of spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), whose lineage diverged from teleosts before teleost genome duplication (TGD). The slowly evolving gar genome has conserved in content and size many entire chromosomes from bony vertebrate ancestors. Gar bridges teleosts to tetrapods by(More)
Teleost fishes represent about half of all living vertebrate species 1 and provide important models for human disease (for example, zebrafish and medaka) 2–9. Connecting teleost genes and gene functions to human biology (Fig. 1a) can be challenging given (i) the two rounds of early vertebrate genome duplication (VGD1 and VGD2 (ref. 10), but see ref. 11)(More)
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