Andrew R Dinardo

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BACKGROUND Microbiological confirmation of childhood tuberculosis is rare because of the difficulty of collection of specimens, low sensitivity of smear microscopy, and poor access to culture. We aimed to establish summary estimates for sensitivity and specificity of of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared with microscopy in the diagnosis of pulmonary(More)
Toxoplasma encephalitis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TE-IRIS) is rare and usually occurs in an unmasking, rather than paradoxical form. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases of paradoxical TE-IRIS and nine cases of unmasking TE-IRIS have been previously described. We present two additional cases of histopathology-consistent(More)
BACKGROUND As access to Xpert expands in high TB-burden settings, its performance against clinically diagnosed TB as a reference standard provides important insight as the majority of childhood TB is bacteriologically unconfirmed. We aim to describe the characteristics and outcomes of children with presumptive TB and TB disease, and assess performance of(More)
PURPOSE International medical graduates (IMGs) constitute a significant number of physicians in the United States. Because of cultural differences in the manifestations and acceptance of mental disorders, depression may be less recognized in countries where IMGs train than in the United States. Differences in medical training may affect IMGs' recognition of(More)
Helminth-infected individuals possess a higher risk of developing tuberculosis, but the precise immunologic mechanism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis control remains unclear. We hypothesized that a perturbation of the M. tuberculosis-specific CD4(+) T-cell response weakens the ability of macrophages to contain M. tuberculosis We exposed peripheral blood(More)
The incidence and death rates from tuberculosis (TB) have declined through concerted efforts in the diagnosis and treatment of active disease. Despite this, 9.6 million new cases and 1.1 million deaths in 2014 are unacceptably high. To decrease the rates of TB further, the huge number of persons with latent TB infection (LTBI) from whom new cases will arise(More)
We present a case of a 39-year-old male patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who developed Mycobacterium tuberculosis related Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) after initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) treatment. The inflammatory response resulted in mediastinal necrotic lymphadenopathy and(More)
Guatemala's 36-year civil war officially ended in December 1996 after some 200,000 deaths and one million refugees. Despite the ceasefire, Guatemala continues to be a violent country with one of the highest homicide rates in the world. We investigated potential associations between violence, mental health, and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala(More)
Most studies evaluating epidemiologic relationships between helminths and HIV have been conducted in the pre-ART era, and evidence of the impact of helminth infections on HIV disease progression remains conflicting. Less is known about helminth infection and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sampled(More)